English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

that

e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned

ex: e she-mi ( mi) - that girl [JOD]

ex: e haⁿ-pa ( h̨pa) - that day [JOD]

ex: e o-do-ha-ke ( odhake) - that last one [JOD]

ex: e maⁿ-te (e mątt) - that canoe [JOD]

ex: e a-niⁿ ni-tʰe ( an̨ nitʰe) - that/the aforementioned, he probably has it [JOD]

ex: o-zha tʰaⁿ e toⁿ-we ni-he (a tʰą t̨we-nihe) - that one dancing, youall look at him [JOD]

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: e a-di-xe koⁿ-da ( diγ kǫd) - she wanted to marry him, the aforementioned [JOD]

ex: e sha-ke niⁿ-kʰe ki-ta-ni taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-ta taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (e ʔke nįkʰ kitni tą ęke ett tą ką-tʰ̨) - he, the old man sat smoking, while his daughter stood [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, di-e kiⁿ e-ka! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ, maⁿ-tʰo e wa-kʰe ti (h̨i, de kʔ̨ ek! iy iy mat̨ke ęke tʰą, mątʰ wakʰ tti) - no, carry it yourself! it is said the rabbits son said, referring to him, the Grizzly bear [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te e niⁿ (sniwtte e nį) - winter/that moving one [JOD]

ex: sni-wa-te e niⁿ a-shi-ti naⁿ hw! hw! i-yi i-ya-wi (sniwtte e nį itti ną hw! hw! iy iywi) - the Winter went out of the lodge, and he said, whoo! whoo! they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: e () - he, she, that, that one, the afore-said, they, it [JOD-Omaha]; e (e) - he, she, it, or that [FL-Osage]; e (e) - 3rd person emphatic or contrastive pronoun (that one, that person, she/her, he/him; those persons, them; this person or thing, the foregoing, she herself, he himself, they themselves [CQ-Osage]; e (e), e (e), (ee) - that, those, be that, those [Kaw]

 

ka (k) - that (invisible) [JOD]

ex: ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/invisible/inanimate

ex: ka-niⁿ (knį) - that singular/moving/invisible/animate

ex: ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - singular/sitting/invisible/animate

ex: ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length

ex: ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that singular/standing/invisible/animate

ex: ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

Dhegiha: ga (ga) - that: refers to what is at one side or out of sight [Omaha/Ponca]; ga (ga) - that [FL-Osage]; ka (ka) - these, this, this one (animate or inanimate [may apply to abstract entities], emphatic or expressing certainty or immediacy) [CQ-Osage]; ga (ga) - that, that yonder, that over there [Kaw]

 

ko-i (ki) - that, there, that distant object

ko-i (ki) - that [JOD]

ko-i (ko), ko-e (ko) - he, she, it, that [ASG]

ex: si-ka ko-i (skka ko) - that chicken [ASG]

ex: si-ka ko-i te-a-de (skka ko tʔede) - I kill that chicken [ASG]

ex: pe-te ko-i (pptte koi) - that fire [MS]

ex: ko-i ko-ta wi-ta (ki kkta wtta) - thats my friend [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni ko-i (waǰni ki) - hes a white man [MS]

ex: wa-jhi-ni miⁿ ko-i (waǰni mį ki) - shes a white woman [MS]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ ye wa-xo ko-i (khottą ye waxʔ ki) - she liked it [MS]

ex: ma-kaⁿ ko-i to-te da-kdi-zha miⁿ-kʰe (makk̨ ki ttte dakdi mįkʰ) - gargle my throat, rinsing, washing [MS]

ex: ko-i ta-taⁿ (ki tttą) - that/what [JOD]

ex: ko-i ta-taⁿ te-zha-i ke, mi-ka-xe aⁿ-te-zha-i ke e-te te (ki tttą tai k, mikkxʔe ąteai ke tte tt) - what is that urinating, I wonder if the stars are urinating on me [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi (g-a-hi) - the object beyond (another [lace); yonder [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-a (ga), gu-da (gda) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

o-ko-i (oko), o-kwe (okw) - that [JOD]

iu-ko-i (ki) - that [OM]

 

she () - that, that visible, that visible thing [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - that/last (one)/indeed [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ (įkk̨-e į) - o grandmother/that visible thing/period [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e she iⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ (įkk̨-e į, iy iy mat̨ke tʰą) - my grandmother, thats him, it is said that the rabbit said [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (ǫt nįkʰe į) - scrotum/the part/that visible/period [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she, shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe, ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here is his scrotum [JOD]

ex: she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object

ex: she-niⁿ (nį) - that moving/visible/animate

ex: she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

ex: she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing/visible/animate

Dhegiha: she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - that one; there [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

 

that amount, that quantity

ko-i-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

ko-i-she naⁿ (koi ną) - is that all [JOD]

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; she-naⁿ (ną) - enough; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - this quantity, this much, this many; e-naⁿ (en̨) - enough

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - (be) ended, finished, thats all, something (e.g., soup, coffee) is finished (i.e., ready); closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashéhnaⁿ) - thats all; just this much; that is enough [Kaw]

Dhegiha: she-na (shna) - enough; sufficient; no longer [Omaha/Ponca]; she-noⁿ (shnoⁿ) - a sufficient number of times [Omaha/Ponca]; she-noⁿ (shenoⁿ) - enough [Omaha]; she-noⁿ (she-noⁿ) - sufficient [FL-Osage]

 

that collection of objects

ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

Dhegiha: ga-tʰe (gtĕ) - that [JOD-Omaha]; ga-tse (g-tse) - this; this pile of things before us [FL-Osage]; ka-tsʰe (ka cʰe) - this (standing: a default combination of demonstrative and positional article used for both concrete and abstract items; those inanimate sitting/round things in the surrounding area (referring to a group of sitting items that would be considered standing when gathered together [CQ-Osage]; ga-che (gáche) - that standing/inanimate object, or pile of objects; that thing, as what is not seen, or that is abstract; that [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

ex: ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - yonder pile [JOD]

ex: ko-wa-tʰe toⁿ-wa! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kwatʰe tǫw! iy iy mat̨ke) - look at that pile (of fat meat) over there! it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰe (g-a-tĕ) - the std. in. ob. or col. on in. objects beyond (another place); the visible object which is beyond (the place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

that direction

ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ta (tta) - toward [ASG]

ex: tʰe-ta (tʰett) - to the, at the [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta da-kʰi taⁿ (tt tʰett dakʰ tą) - lodge-to the-you reach home-when [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ta (kʰtta) - at the [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - Im going home [OM]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de taⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

ex: koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (tt̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke-tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ (̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨) - horse-to the standing-she sat on her own [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]

ex: ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]

ex: ka-ki o-zha da-i (kki a d-i) - there/to dance/they went [JOD]

ex: ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ka-ki (kak) - there [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kda-i ke-ni-te ka-ki niⁿ e-taⁿ-niⁿ kʰi a-taⁿ we-da-niⁿ shi-ke he-naⁿ i-da-ki-kda-niⁿ a-taⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ki-we (kįttą ett̨nį kd-i kenitt kaki nį ett̨nį kʰ ttą wdanį ke hną idkikdnį ttą ką-tʰ̨ tą kwe) - then they (her step-sisters) started home first, although she arrived home first, before them (her step-sisters), and she put on her bad clothes and was there awhile when they (her step-sisters) reached home [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka ęke kkid-i k tą h) - then/to dance/there/they went/the plural/chief/large/his son/they took part with (=danced)/the plural/when/she arrived [JOD]

 

ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction, going in that direction [JOD]

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]; ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]; ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ka-ki-de-de (kkidde) - in that direction [JOD]

ex: wi-e ka-ki-de-de bde te (we kkidde bde tte) - I will go in this direction [JOD]

ex: di-e ka-ki-de-de da ni-he (de kkidde d nih) - you go in that direction! [JOD]

ex: de-she-tʰaⁿ ka-ki-de-de (deetʰ̨ kkidde) - from this place/going in that direction [JOD]

 

ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

cf. ka-ki (kak) - in that place, down below, yonder, in that direction, there [JOD]; ka-ki ke (kak ke) - those [JOD]; ka-ki niⁿ (kaki nį) - yonder/the moving [JOD]

ex: ka-ki de-da (kki ded) - send (throw) it in that direction!

ex: e-ti ka-ki de-da (tti kki ded) - throw it (send it) there, in that direction! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club yonder! she said to me [JOD]

ex: e-ti shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰiⁿ ka-ki de-da, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (tti in̨ ̨tʰį kki ded, ąn̨kiye) - throw the club there, yonder again! she said to me [JOD]

 

e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; tʰe-ta (tttta) - at or to the standing inanimate object; ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

Dhegiha: e-ta (ta) - there; thither; so; unto (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (éta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: a-ta-thi-shoⁿ (atthishoⁿ) - in that direction, towards, pertaining to [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ta thi-shoⁿ (eta thishoⁿ) - toward [Omaha]; ga-ke ta-thi-shoⁿ (gake tathishoⁿ) - direction [Omaha]; ʰta-thi-shoⁿ (ṭa-thi-shoⁿ) - towards that direction [FL-Osage]; e-ʰta-thi-shoⁿ (e-ṭ-thi-shoⁿ) - in the direction of, toward [FL-Osage]

 

e-to-ka-xde (ettkaxde) - facing in that direction, etta+okaxde, facing forward given the meaning of etto e-ta o-a-ka-xde (etta okaxde) - I, e-to-da-ka-xde (ettodkaxde) - you

cf. e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]; o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards

Dhegiha: e-ʰta u-ga-xthe (e-ṭ u-ga-xthe) - facing in that direction [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-ta (ta) - there; thither; so; unto (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (éta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthe (gaqthe) - to be facing a certain direction [Omaha/Ponca]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogáxle) - facing, face a direction [Kaw]

 

ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

cf. ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of

ex: mi-o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset, on the west side

 

            ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]

cf. ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there; kaⁿ-ha (kk̨ha), koⁿ-ha (kk̨ha) - near, by; e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance; i-maⁿ-ha (imąha) - Imaha, a Quapaw village; the up river Quapaw village

ex: ko-ha da-kde ta-i, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye (kha dakd tai, ąn̨kiye) - in that direction you two will go homeward, she said to him [JOD]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of, from [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ha de (ha d) - to go in that direction, go along that path [JOD]

cf. o-ha (oh) - following, following its course [JOD]; de (de) - go

ex: hi-da-ta-kde o-ha de (hidttakde ha d) - she ascended the ladder [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ha (uh) - following, following it, following the course [JOD-Omaha]; u-ha u-ga-shoⁿ (uha ugashoⁿ) - tour [Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of, from [CQ-Osage]

 

that he would

ta-we (ttaw) - that he would [JOD]

cf. ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic; a-we (we) - evidential particle

ex: ta-bde de ta-we (tbde d ttaw) - hunting/go/that he would [JOD]

ex: o-naⁿ-bde kda-sniⁿ naⁿ, shi-naⁿ ta-bde de ta-we, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąbde kdasn̨ ną, ną tbde d ttaw, iy iy sniwtte) - when all the food had been consumed, it is said that Winter spoke of going hunting again [JOD]

ex: ta-bde de ta-we (tbde d ttaw) - to hunt/go/that he would [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, sni-wa-te ta-bde de ta-we, i-yi i-ya (h̨tʰąhi, sniwatt tbde d ttaw iy, iy) - after some time, Winter spoke of going hunting, it is said that he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: tʰa-bi (tʰbi) - future sign, used in quoting anothers words (indirect narration) [JOD-Omaha]

 

that kind

e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so

ex: e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort [JOD]

ex: wi-e e-koⁿ wa-bda-ta-zhi moⁿ, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (we ek̨ w-bdati m̨, iy nįkʰ, iy mat̨ke) - the Rabbit said, I am not accustomed to eating that kind (of food), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like it [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-zhi, e-koⁿ o-a-ta-zhi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hǫ, ek̨ ottai anih, iy iy sniwtte) - no, I am not looking for that kind, it is said Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - kind, type, as, like, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like, verily, very (FL-Osage); e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true, thats the way, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so [Kaw]

 

e-koⁿ naⁿ (ek̨ n̨) - only that sort, only that kind

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so; naⁿ-hi (nąh) - alone, all alone; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

ex: e-koⁿ naⁿ (ek̨ n̨) - only that sort [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, e-koⁿ naⁿ o-a-te a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (hǫ, ek̨ n̨ otte anih, iy iy sniwtte) - yes, I have been looking for just that kind, it is said Winter said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - kind, type, as, like, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like, verily, very (FL-Osage); e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true, thats the way, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-naⁿ (enⁿ) - that only [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (e-nⁿ) - only one, sole, exclusive [FL-Osage]; e-na (een), e-naⁿ (een̨) - be the only one, that only, therefore, thats why, enough [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ e (hnaⁿ ) - alone, only, just [Kaw]

 

that long

ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length

cf. ka (k) - that; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: ga-tʰoⁿ (gatʰⁿ) - that far; that long; ga-toⁿ (ga-toⁿ) - a while [FL-Osage]; ka-txaⁿ (katx̨) - while, meanwhile, awhile, for a while, after a while, a little while [CQ-Osage]; ga-khaⁿ (gakháⁿ) - awhile, for a time [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-tʰoⁿ (gatʰⁿ) - to throw the lead to measure the depth of a stream [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-taⁿ (gatáⁿ) - throw the lead to measure depth [Kaw]

 

she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

cf. de-she-tʰaⁿ (deetʰ̨) - from this place [JOD]; ka i-she-tʰaⁿ (k-ietʰ̨) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that far (and no farther); that long (and no longer); the end [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ (shtʰoⁿ) - that length; that short [Omaha/Ponca]

 

that lying object

ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular/lying/invisible/inanimate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: ga-kʰe (gkʰe) - that seen long inanimate object; that reclining animate object unseen but heard [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ko-i-kʰe (kikʰe) - that remote singular, lying, visible, animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular, lying, animate or inanimate; de-kʰe (dkʰe) - this lying, inanimate; de-kʰe-koⁿ (dekʰek̨) - this kind [JOD]; ka-kʰe (kkʰe) - that singular, lying, invisible, inanimate; ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular, lying, animate or inanimate, yonder; she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular, lying, visible object; to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side; to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular, lying, inanimate object on this side

ex: ni koi-kʰe (n kikʰe) - water/that lying object [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti ni koi-kʰe e-koⁿ i-da-hi-bda a-ta-pa-xti (ąįktti n kikʰe ek̨ idhibd ttapaxt) - when I was small, I bathed in the water at regular intervals [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-kʰe (g-a-kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-kʰe (g-a-hi-kĕ́) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-kʰe (ga-hi--kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. at a great distance and beyond (another place); it lies yonder [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-wa-kʰe (kwakʰe) - that singular/lying/animate or inanimate, yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: gu-a-kʰe (g-a-kĕ) - the recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob. in sight and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

she-kʰe (kʰe) - that singular/lying/visible object

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: she-kʰe (shkʰe) - that visible recl. an. ob., lg. in. ob., or rectilinear col. of in. objects, near the speaker or the one addressed [Omaha/Ponca]; she-kshe (sh-kshe) - that long object [FL-Osage]; she-kshe (e ke) - that one near you lying down [CQ-Osage]

 

to-kʰe (tokʰ) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-wa-kʰe (twakʰe) - that singular/lying/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; kʰe (kʰe) - the singular/lying/animate or inanimate

Dhegiha: du-a-kʰe (dakʰe) - the recl. an. ob. or the lg. in. ob. on this side of (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]; to-wa-kshe (twa ke) - that one lying there [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-a (dua) - on this side [JOD-Omaha]; to-wa (twa), to-a (ta) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: kʰe (kʰe) - the inanimate lying, the inanimate horizontal, be positioned horizontally, an extended action in a lying position [Omaha]; kshe (kshe) - to prostrate, that lies, to lay down, to place flat on the ground or to be prostrate on any surface, the length of time from the beginning of a vigil [FL-Osage]; kshe (ke) - positional article for an entity that is lying down or long; positional article that indicates plurality of an inanimate entity that takes tsʰe (cʰe) standing positional in the singular [CQ-Osage]; kshe (ke) - lying down or long [CQ-Osage]; khe (khe) - the; definite article for lying/inanimate objects [Kaw]

 

that moving object

ka-niⁿ (knį) - that singular/moving/invisible/animate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: ga-thiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - that mv. an. ob.; that growing in. ob., as a lot of grass; ga-thiⁿ (g-thiⁿ) - that person moving [FL-Osage]

 

ko-i-niⁿ (kinį) - that remote singular/moving/visible/animate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ), gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ) - the visible an, ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-thiⁿ (g-a-hi-ⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a short distance and beyond (another place), but not traveling [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-thiⁿ (g-a-hi--iⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-de-de-niⁿ (ktadden̨) - that departed singular/moving/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; de (de) - go; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-the-thiⁿ (g-a-e-iⁿ) - that visible one beyond or that side of a person or place, who has started and is mv. [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ (ktanį) - that singular/moving/animate over there

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ), gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ) - the visible an, ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga)  - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; gu-da (g-da) - facing the opposite direction [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived singular/moving/animate; the one who has reached

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-thiⁿ (g-a-hi-ⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a short distance and beyond (another place), but not traveling [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-niⁿ (kwanį) - that singular/moving/animate, yon

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ (g-a-iⁿ), gu-da-thiⁿ (g-da-iⁿ) - the visible an, ob. mv. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

she-niⁿ (nį) - that moving/visible/animate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: she-thiⁿ (shthiⁿ) - that moving animate object not going on a journey; that collection of growing (i.e. moving) inanimate objects, as grasses, refers to what is visible and near [Omaha/Ponca]

 

to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that singular/moving/animate object that arrived on this side

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: du-a-hi-thiⁿ (dahithⁿ) - the animate object moving at a short distance, and on this side of (a place).

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-ta-hi-de-niⁿ (ttahden̨) - that singular/moving/animate object arriving on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-da-hi--iⁿ), du-a-hi-the-thiⁿ (d-a-hi--iⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. (in a crowd) at a great distance (from the speaker), and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

 

to-ta-niⁿ (ttan̨) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ (ddaiⁿ), du-a-thiⁿ (duaiⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. on this side of (the place); what is seen [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

to-wa-niⁿ (twanį) - that singular/moving/animate object on this side or the nearer of two objects

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; continuative aux. moving

Dhegiha: du-a-thiⁿ (dathiⁿ) - the an. ob. mv. on this side of (the place); what is seen [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: du-a (dua) - on this side [JOD-Omaha]; to-wa (twa), to-a (ta) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - the moving [JOD-Omaha]; thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - a man or animal moving about [FL-Osage]; yi (yi) - continuative, moving/animate [Kaw]

 

that one too, both

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa (mikk mat̨ke enąp) - raccoon and rabbit, the both of them [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ni-ka she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa (nkka mika enąp) - both the man and little girl [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka niⁿ-kʰe she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kda-we, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka nįkʰ mika enąp kdwe, iywe) - then both the man and little girl started homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka she-mi-zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kde pa, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka mika enąp kde p, iywe) - then both the man and little girl were going homeward, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ba (ethⁿba) - also, too: refers to two objects, and no more [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-pa (-thoⁿ-ba) - and; he also; of the two divisions [FL-Osage]; e-thoⁿ-pa (eǫǫpa) - group including just mentioened individual(s) (can sometimes be translated as both, all, and another, and others, or as and I when followed by a verb with 1st pl. inflection) [CQ-Osage]; e-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - both, too, also; and (used with nouns) [Kaw]

 

that only

e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, the aforementioned; naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: wa-jhi-ni kde ta zho-zhi-te e-naⁿ o-zha-wi koⁿ-bda (waǰni kd tta otte ną awi kkǫbd) - you white people go home and us Indians dance all night (when the white people go home, I want just us Indians to dance [MS]

ex: e-naⁿ (en̨) - she only [JOD]

ex: she-mi e-zhi ke hi taⁿ wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ kʰe za-ni di-za-i taⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke taⁿ e-naⁿ kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (mi i ke h tą wah̨ska httą kʰe zan diz-i tą wah̨nįk tą en̨ ką-tʰą) - when the other girls arrived, they took all the good calico, the orphan just stood there alone [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (ĕnⁿ mⁿnⁿ) - masculine name, Walks Alone, refers to the buffalo bull (tetka) [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - female personal name, The Only Precious, Difficult One [OM]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (en̨h) - only [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-hi o-shte naⁿ, i-ya (waxʔ nįkʰ nąh ot ną, iy) - only the woman remained, it is said [JOD]

ex: de-do a-shka e-ti-tʰaⁿ she-mi e-naⁿ-hi wa-niⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ, i-ke niⁿ (ddo ka etttʰą mi en̨h wnį etttʰą, ik n̨) - near here one stands (a lodge), it only has girls, he said to her [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - they only [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-hnaⁿ (e-hnⁿ), e-naⁿ (-naⁿ), e-na (en) - that only, he only, only he, alone, that alone, it alone, he alone [JOD-Omaha]; e-noⁿ (-noⁿ) - that only, only one, alone, sole, exclusive, special [FL-Osage]; e-naⁿ (eną), e-na (ena), e-ʰna (ʰna) - he/she/it only, it is only he/she/it [CQ-Osage]; e-hnaⁿ (éhnaⁿ) - only [Kaw]

 

e-naⁿ-xti (en̨-xti) - only that, he, she, it alone

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, the aforementioned; naⁿ (ną) - only [JOD]; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; e-naⁿ (ną), e-naⁿ-hi (enąh) - only that, him, her, it; naⁿ-xti (nąxt) - only [JOD]; naⁿ-hi (n̨hi) - only, alone, all alone; de naⁿ-hi (d nąh) - only this, just this; naⁿ-iⁿ-te (n̨įtte) - only, alone

ex: di-shi-ka-we taⁿ-ha wa-kdi-shka e-naⁿ-xti da-tʰe ta-i-tʰe (dikwe t̨ha wakdka ną-xti datʰ taitʰ) - because youall have been bad, youall shall eat nothing but insects and reptiles in the future [JOD]

ex: maⁿ xi-da ma-shoⁿ e-naⁿ-xti i-da-ki-da naⁿ, i-ya (m̨ xid mǫ en̨-xti idkid ną, iy) - he used only eagle feathers to glue to the arrows, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-na-xti (enqti), e-na-xchi (enqchi) - only that, it, he, she, or they; he, she, it, or them alone [Omaha/Ponca]; e-noⁿ-xji (enoⁿxji) - only; single [Omaha]; e-noⁿ-xtsi (e-nⁿ-xtsi) - he, she, or it alone [FL-Osage]

 

that place

e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: e-ta de-de o-ka-xde (ett dde okxde) - face the other way

ex: e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side

ex: e-ta-ha (ettah) - over there [JOD]

ex: e-ta-kaⁿ-za (ettkkąza) - above, directly, opposite

ex: e-ta-ki-kaⁿ-za (ettkkikk̨za) - opposite, even with, parallel

ex: e-ta-ko-iⁿ-xe hi (ettkįγe hi) - he came around to him [JOD]

ex: e-ta te-ta (ett ttetta) - at or on the right side, may just be side

ex: e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction

Dhegiha: e-ta (ĕ́ʇa) - there [JOD-Omaha]; e-ʰta (e-ṭ) - thitherward; toward the person [FL-Osage]; e-ta (ta) - there, towards that place [Kaw]

 

e-ti (tti), (ett) - there, then

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨) - there/alone/she was standing so awhile [JOD]

ex: e-ti e-naⁿ-hi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ taⁿ ta-bde de naⁿ (tti enąh ką-tʰ̨ tą tbde d ną) - she was there alone, when he went hunting [JOD]

ex: e-ti zhoⁿ-wi (ett ̨wi) - they (the two of them) laid down there [JOD]

ex: e-ti da-tʰe shoⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe taⁿ-niⁿ da-we (tti datʰ ̨-nįkʰ tt̨nį dwe) - he sat there eating (the puppy) while they ran away [JOD]

ex: e-ti shoⁿ-zhi-ka i-da-bniⁿ tʰaⁿ ki-ki-knaⁿ-wi (tti ̨ik dabnį tʰą kkikn̨wi) - there, they put their third pup down for him [JOD]

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

ex: e-ti o-i-he (tti ih) - follow, go with, attend

ex: e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - thence, subsequently, from then on

ex: e-ti e-zha (tti a) - and then [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di (di), (ed) - by, at, in, to; there; thither; said of time as well as place: then, when; used in making an assertion: it is there [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di (edi) - there; over there; at [Omaha]; e-dsi (e-ds) - there [FL-Osage]; e-tsi (ec) - be present here/there, exist here/there; be at that time; and, plus [CQ-Osage]; e-ji (ejí), (éji) - there, in that place; to that place, thither [Kaw]

 

ko-i-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

cf. koi (ki) - there, that; ta (-tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; ko-i-ta de-de (kitta dde) - a little to one side

ex: i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ (kaxtta kitta kn̨) - on the opposite side of the lodge/in that place/sit thou [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, i-ka-xa-ta koi-ta kniⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-sa niⁿ-kʰe (h̨tʰąhi, kaxtta kitta kn̨, iy iy was niⁿkʰe) - then the black bear said, sit over there on the other side of the lodge, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

she-ta (tta) - there, at/to that place

cf. she () - that; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: she-ta a-kʰi-kniⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (tta akʰknį tta mįkʰ) - I will return thither (in sight) and take my seat

ex: she-ta da-kʰi-kniⁿ naⁿ (tta dakʰknį n̨) - return thither and take your seat!

ex: di-taⁿ-niⁿ e-ti da! a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta pi te (dttąnį tti d! iǫhttą tta ppi tte) - you go there first! I will join you later on

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi ta oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨), a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: she (she) - that way, that course or direction; that [Omaha/Ponca]; she (ce) - that way or course; that: refers to an object in sight of or near the speaker and the one addressed [JOD-Omaha]; she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - there; that one [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (e) - that, that one near you; here near you; there near you, there (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); him/her/it (closer to the hearer than to the speaker); she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

that sitting object

ka-niⁿ-kʰe (knįkʰe) - singular/sitting/invisible/animate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ka niⁿ-kʰe (k nįkʰ) - that/sitting object [JOD]

ex: ka niⁿ-kʰe be o-da-ki-e e, i-yi i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (k nįkʰ b odkkie e, iy iy mątʰ) - who is that one to whom you are talking? it is said Grizzly bear said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-thiⁿ-kʰe (gthiⁿkʰe) - that st. an. ob., or that cv. in. ob., at one side (but not seen) or out of sight (but heard); that one st., the ob. of an action; seen, and near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-thiⁿ-kshe (g-thiⁿ-kshe) - this (person) sitting [FL-Osage]; ka-iⁿ-kshe (ka įke) - this one (sitting); these (lying down or horizontal things gathered into a bundle or a sack that sits) [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-i-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe (kihidnįkʰe) - that remote singular/sitting/visible

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe-ti (ni kihidnįkʰetti) - hill/at yonder distant visible place [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke niⁿ-kʰe a-ni koi-hi-de-niⁿ-kʰe ti ti-kde niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke niⁿkʰe ni kihidnįkʰe tti ttikd niⁿkʰe) - the black bear chief dwells in a lodge beyond yonder distant bluff [JOD]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi--i-ke), gu-da-hi-the-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi--i-k) - the an. ob. st. or kneeling at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-i-niⁿ-kʰe (kinįkʰe) - that remote singular, sitting, visible, animate or inanimate

cf. koi (ki) - that; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-a-hi-i-k), gu-da-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (g-da-hi-i-k) - the an. ob. st. at a short distance and beyond; refers to one unseen but heard [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ktanįkʰe) - that singular/sitting/animate/yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: gu-da-thiⁿ-ke (g-da-i-k), gu-a-thiⁿ-ke (g-a-i-k)  - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place [JOD-Omaha]; gu-da thiⁿ-shke (g-da thiⁿ-shke) - the one sitting on the opposite side [FL-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-kshe (kotaįk) - that one sitting over there or yonder (beyond speaker or hearer) [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta-iⁿ-ke (kootįke) - over there, yonder, farther than another thing, way over there, way back in thime or distance [CQ-Osage]; go-da-yiⁿ-khe (gdayiⁿkhe) - over there; yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (kwanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate or inanimate/yonder

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: ma-zhaⁿ ko-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (mą kwanįkʰe) - yonder (piece of) land

Dhegiha: gu-a-thiⁿ-kʰe ((g-a-i-k) - the visible an. ob. st. beyond or on that side of a person or place; refers to one sitting [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

she-niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - that sitting/visible/animate or inanimate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

ex: wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ (wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį) - mothers brother/that cv. ob./rocky mountain sheep/head/one [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ, i-yi- i-ya (wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį, iy iy) - my mothers brother, that object by you is the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said that he said [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-thiⁿ-kʰe (shthiⁿkʰe) - that visible and near sitting animate object; that visible and near sitting subject of an action at the request of another (not a free action); that curved inanimate object [Omaha/Ponca]; she-iⁿ-kshe (e įk), she-thiⁿ-kshe (e įk) - that one sitting (animate or inanimate), that one over there, closer to the hearer than to the speaker; that thing there [CQ-Osage]; she-yiⁿ-khe (shéyiⁿkhe) - that (visible/sitting; animate or inanimate; object of verb) [Kaw]

 

to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate nearby object on this side of a place

cf. niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-a-hi-thiⁿ-kʰe (dahithiⁿkʰ) - this animate object sitting at a short distance from (the speaker), and on this side of (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

 

to-ta-niⁿ-kʰe (ttanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-da-thiⁿ-ke (d-da-i-k), du-a-thiⁿ-ke (d-a-i-k) - the an. ob. st. on this side of (the place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da thiⁿ-kse (d-da thiⁿ-kshe) - the one sitting on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-wa-niⁿ-kʰe (twanįkʰ) - that singular/sitting object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; niⁿ-kʰe (nįkʰe) - the singular/sitting/animate or inanimate; he/she/it, 3rd person singular continuative sitting

Dhegiha: du-a-thiⁿ-kʰe (dathiⁿkʰ) - the an. ob. st. on this side of (the place) [Omaha/Ponca]; to-wa iⁿ-kshe (twa įke), to-iⁿ-kshe (t įk) - that one of uncertain or unimportant identity (animate or inanimate); that person sitting; that object or thing sitting there; that group of objects of uncertain or unimportant identity (not animate if plural) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-a (dua) - on this side [JOD-Omaha]; to-wa (twa), to-a (ta) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

that size

e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it; na-ska (-nask) - size

ex: e-aⁿ-naⁿ-ska (ęnąska) - of my size [JOD)]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka wi e-aⁿ-naⁿ-ska ke e-hoⁿ we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ pa naⁿ, wa-xo zhi-ka ke wa-hiⁿ zhi-te i-niⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ o-zha pa naⁿ (waxʔ ik wi ęnąska ke eh̨ wnįtʰą pp ną, waxʔ ik ke wah̨ tte nį ̨ttą a pp ną) - the old women of my size, they also wore clothing, the old women wore red broad cloth when they danced [JOD]

ex: e-ti o-ma-ni-ka kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ sa-taⁿ a-kniⁿ e-aⁿ-na-ska a-ni-he maⁿ (et omnikka kdbnątt̨ satt̨ akn̨ ęnaska anhe m̨) - I was fifteen years of age there

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ska (thoⁿska) - of that size (i.e., the size of a measure or standard): refers to inanimate objects only [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size

cf. ka (k) - that; na-ska (-nask) - size; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big or small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; ko-i-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size

 

ko-i-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; na-ska (-nask) - size; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big or small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - size, of equal or like; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size

 

miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure); miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size; miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity; miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth; miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na-ska (wiⁿdnaska) - half size, half that size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-thoⁿ-ska (wiⁿdthoⁿska) - half, half the size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]

 

she-na-ska (enask) - big enough size, of that size

cf. she (e) - that; na-ska (-nask) - size; de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big or small, what size; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska (hnaskska) - how big (is) each; ha-na-ska-ska hi-te (hnaskska hitt) - whatever size, however big; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; ko-i-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

Dhegiha: she-na-ska (shnaska), she-thoⁿ-ska (shthoⁿska) - that size: refers to small things [Omaha/Ponca]; she-yoⁿ-ska (shéyoⁿska) - that size, that big; the size of the visible object [Kaw]

 

that standing object

ka-tʰaⁿ (ktʰą) - that singular/standing/invisible/animate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: ka-tʰą (ktʰą) - that standing one [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-tʰoⁿ (gtʰoⁿ) - that standing animate object [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that remote singular/standing/visible/animate

ko-i-tʰaⁿ (kitʰą) - that [ASG]

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, it, there; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

ex: shoⁿ-ke ko-i-tʰaⁿ (̨ke kitʰą) - that dog [ASG]

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰaⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi-tⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]; gu-a-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-ta-de-de-tʰaⁿ (ktaddetʰ̨) - that departed singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; de (de) - go; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (g-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

 

ko-ta-tʰaⁿ (ktatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, yonder

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: go-da toⁿ (g-da toⁿ) - that person standing yonder [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰaⁿ (tⁿ) - the; standing; the standing; the standing object; the standing animate object; the standing one [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ), toⁿ (toⁿ) - to stand; to stand, as a man, woman, or horse [FL-Osage]; txaⁿ (txą), kxaⁿ (kxą) - positional article for a singular animate standing entity; continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd person singular animate standing subject; also may indicate initiation of an activity by subject regardless of position [CQ-Osage]; kha (kha), khaⁿ (khaⁿ) - the; definite article for standing/animate objects; positional continuative [Kaw]

 

ko-wa-tʰaⁿ (kwatʰą) - that singular/standing/animate, the further one

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: gu-a-tʰaⁿ (g-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

she-tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - that standing/visible/animate

cf. she () - that, that visible, that visible thing; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: she-toⁿ (sh-toⁿ) - that one standing [FL-Osage]; she-txaⁿ (e txą), she-kxaⁿ (e kxą), she-tkxaⁿ (e tkxą) - that one standing (animate) [CQ-Osage]

 

to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side of a place he has reached

cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: do (do) - in this direction, toward here; that one, the one over there; this one, the one over here [Kaw]

Dhegiha: du-a-hi-tʰoⁿ (dahitʰⁿ) - the animate object standing at a short distance from (the speaker), and on this side of (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]

 

to-ta-hi-de-tʰaⁿ (ttahdetʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object coming, on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here, not own; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (d-da-hi--taⁿ), du-a-hi-the-tʰaⁿ (d-a-hi--taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. at a great distance from (the speaker) and on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi-the (d-da-hi-), du-a-hi-the (d-a-hi-) - at a great distance from (the speaker), and on this side of a place [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-hi (d-da-hi), du-a-hi (d-a-hi) - on this side of (it) at a short distance [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

to-ta-tʰaⁿ (ttatʰ̨) - that singular/standing/animate object on this side

cf. to-ta (tta) - on this side; tʰaⁿ (tʰą) - the standing/animate; continuative auxiliary, singular/standing/animate

Dhegiha: du-da-taⁿ (d-da-taⁿ), du-a-taⁿ (d-a-taⁿ) - the an. ob. std. on this side of (a place) [JOD-Omaha]; du-da-toⁿ (d-da toⁿ) - the one standing on this side [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-da (dda), du-a (da)  - on this side and nearer this place; hither [JOD-Omaha]; do-da (d-da) - in this direction [FL-Osage]; do-da (dda) - this way, the one on this side; the one who is present [Kaw]

 

ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

cf. ka (k) - that (invisible); tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

Dhegiha: ga-tʰe (gtĕ) - that [JOD-Omaha]; ga-tse (g-tse) - this; this pile of things before us [FL-Osage]; ka-tsʰe (ka cʰe) - this (standing: a default combination of demonstrative and positional article used for both concrete and abstract items; those inanimate sitting/round things in the surrounding area (referring to a group of sitting items that would be considered standing when gathered together [CQ-Osage]; ga-che (gáche) - that standing/inanimate object, or pile of objects; that thing, as what is not seen, or that is abstract; that [Kaw]

 

ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that, there; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

ex: wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te ko-i-tʰe di-ha-knaⁿ da (watʰ bisątte kitʰe dihkną d) - go iron your (that) dress! [AG]

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-tʰe (g-a-hi-tĕ́) - the std. in. ob. or the col. of in. objects at a short distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

 

ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that singular/standing/invisible, yon

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; hi-de (hid) - to send it hither [JOD]; hi-de (hid) - go, to have gone somewhere; further; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

Dhegiha: gu-a-hi-the-tʰe (g-a-hi--tĕ) - the in. ob. std. or the col. of in. objects at a great distance and beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: go (go) - that distant person or object; there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; when [Kaw]

 

to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; tʰe (tʰe) - the singular/standing/inanimate, collective/inanimate; the act; past, completive aspect

Dhegiha: du-a-tʰe (datʰe) - the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects on this side of (a place) [Omaha/Ponca]; to-wa tsʰe (twa cʰe) - this one (thing) standing here, that one (thing) standing there; those ones, that stuff (a collection of sitting or round inanimate objects (such as a bunch of grapes) whose exact identity is unimportant or unknown) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: du-a (dua) - on this side [JOD-Omaha]; to-wa (twa), to-a (ta) - that, those (of one or more persons or things that are more remote than someone/something else or whose exact description in unknown or of little importance to the speech event) [CQ-Osage]

 

that way

e-ti-koⁿ (ettik̨) - that way [JOD]

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since, so, like; de-kaⁿ (dek̨), de-koⁿ (dek̨) - this sort; this kind, like this [JOD]; e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - that sort, like, thus, like that, so

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

 

that will do

shoⁿ iⁿ (̨ į) - that will do [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; iⁿ (̨) - period, oral stop; iⁿ (į) - declarative particle, female speech; ka-shoⁿ (kaǫ) - thats all, thats enough

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-iⁿ da (shⁿ-iⁿ da) - enough; satisfying [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

that yonder, that over there

ko-ta-ha (ktaha) - that yonder, that over there

ko-ta-ha (kőtőhah) - that, which, who (qui) [GI]

cf. ko-ha (kha) - in that direction [JOD]; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: ko-ta-ha (kootha) - (to/from) farther away (in space); farther back, farther ahead (in space or time); beyond; the next to last, the one before last; the one after next, the one past the next [CQ-Osage]; go-da-ha (gdaha) - over there, thither [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: go (go) - there, yonder: distal prefix of relative location; on the other side; on the far side; that distant person or object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ha (ha) - termination of direction, used with verbs of motion; in different ways or places; so many in each place [JOD-Omaha]; ha (ha) - through (direction), along a path, in a direction, by way of; from [CQ-Osage]

 

that, at that time

e-shaⁿ-taⁿ (ęttą) - then, at that time

ex: e-shaⁿ-taⁿ da-i ke o-wa-di-bnaⁿ de (ęttą da ke wadbną d) - then he smelled where they went [JOD]

 

e-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ettątʰ̨) - at that time [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti, e-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ąįktti ettątʰ̨) - at that time, when I was small [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-tʰoⁿ-doⁿ (tʰoⁿdoⁿ) - at the proper time or season; to be the time or opportunity for [Omaha/Ponca]

 

e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time [JOD]

cf. e-ti (ett) - there; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; come, be coming here

ex: e-ti-hi (etthi) - at that time [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe we-kde-wa-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (etthi dixi wadxow nįkʰ wkdewa ną, iy) - at that time the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth did not vomit him up, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de (etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid) - at that time/he caused him to do so at short intervals [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid tʰą ną, iy) - at that time, he (Rabbit) made him (Rabbits son) do it repeatedly, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-di-hi (edhi) - then [Omaha/Ponca]; e-di-hi (dih) - it is time for it [Omaha/Ponca]; e-dsi-hi (e-ds-hi) - when that happens [FL-Osage]

 

that, do that

e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ), e-ki-oⁿ (kiʔǫ) - do as someone has said or done e-ki-moⁿ (kimǫ) - I, e-ki-zhoⁿ (kiǫ) - you

cf. oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - use, do, be

ex: e-ki-oⁿ (kį) - do that [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i, e-koⁿ te e-ki-oⁿ! sni-wa-te i-yi i-ya (ąn̨de tta, kǫ tte kį! sniwtte iy iy) - we shall see, do so! it is said that Winter said [JOD]

ex: kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de (kdahhe kiǫ-kkid) - he caused him to do so at short intervals [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ e-ti-hi kda-he-he e-ki-oⁿ-ki-de tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną etthi kdahhe kiǫ-kkid tʰą ną, iy) - at that time, he (Rabbit) made him (Rabbits son) do it repeatedly, it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ki-oⁿ (̨kį) - he treated mine [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I think that he has been treating my kinsman so, it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gi-aⁿ (-gi-aⁿ) - to do that [JOD-Omaha]; e-gi-oⁿ (-g-oⁿ) - to do so [FL-Osage]; e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ) - do something, proceed or go ahead with something, can, be able to [CQ-Osage]; e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ), e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ) - do so, do that to another, do something [Kaw]

 

she oⁿ ( ʔǫ) - to do that she moⁿ ( mǫ) - I, she zhoⁿ ( ǫ) - you, she oⁿ ( ʔǫ) - he/she/it, she aⁿ-koⁿ ( ąk̨) - we dual, I and one other, she aⁿ-koⁿ-we ( ąk̨we) -we

cf. she () - that; oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do, be

ex: she moⁿ naⁿ (-mǫ n̨) - I did that/past sign [JOD]

Dhegiha: she moⁿ (sh moⁿ) - I have done that; I have acted in that manner [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: she (she) - that; refers to an object to the right of or near the speaker [Omaha/Ponca]; she (she) - that one; there [FL-Osage]; she (e) - that (near you) [CQ-Osage]; she (she) - that (visible) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: oⁿ (oⁿ) - do, be [Omaha/Ponca]; oⁿ (̨) - do, engage in an activity [CQ-Osage]; oⁿ (oⁿ), oⁿ (oⁿ) - do [Kaw]

 

that, dont do that

ka-she-naⁿ na-ha (kaną nah) - dont do that! [AB]

cf. ka (k) - that; she-naⁿ (ną) - enough; na-ha (nah) - prohibitive, beware lest; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - this quantity, this much, this many; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - (be) ended, finished, thats all, something (e.g., soup, coffee) is finished (i.e., ready); closing of a prayer, amen [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashéhnaⁿ) - thats all; just this much; that is enough [Kaw]

Dhegiha: she-noⁿ (shnoⁿ) - a sufficient number of times [Omaha/Ponca]; she-na (shna) - enough; sufficient; no longer [Omaha/Ponca]; she-noⁿ (shenoⁿ) - enough [Omaha]; she-noⁿ (she-noⁿ) - sufficient [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ha (naⁿha), noⁿ-ha (noⁿha) - imperative [Kaw]; na-ha-o (nahao) - imperative, masculine singular [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-he (thiⁿh) - imperative sign, expressing a strong command: be sure to do it! [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-hau (thiⁿ-ha) - be sure, used at the end of a sentence [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ (į), thi (i), niⁿ (nį), ni (ni) - imperative marker, sentence final marker for command to sg. addressee [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-he (hnⁿhe) - strong imperative or prohibition marker [Kaw]

 

that, to dream that

i-hoⁿ-bde (hǫbde) - to dream that, to dream about it i-da-hoⁿ-bde (idhǫbd) - I, i-da-hoⁿ-bde (dahǫbd) - you

cf. hoⁿ-bde (h̨bde) - dream

ex: i-da-hoⁿ-bde (idhǫbde) - I dreamed that I dreamed about (it) [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-a-bde a-tʰaⁿ-he shi-ke-xti i-da-hoⁿ-bde (h̨abde atʰąh ke-xti idhǫbde) - Ive been dreaming, I dreamed a very bad dream [JOD]

ex: za-ni-xti te-a-wa-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde (zan-xti tʔewadaw idhǫbde) - I dreamed that they killed us all, every single one of us [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde, i-ye tʰaⁿ, i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde, iy tʰą, iy) - I dreamed that they killed me too, he said, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ-bthe (hoⁿbthe) - to dream in the ordinary way; to dream about any special object [Omaha/Ponca]; i-hoⁿ-bthe (-hoⁿ-bthe) - to dream a certain thing [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-bthe (hⁿbthe) - to dream our ordinary dream [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ-bthe (hoⁿbthe) - dreaming; dream [Omaha]; hoⁿ-bthe (hⁿ-bthe) - to dream [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ-bre (h̨bre) - dream, have a dream; dream, dreaming [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ble (haⁿbl) - dream [Kaw]

 

that, from that same time on

e-ki-taⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ekkttątʰ̨) - from that same time on

 

that, from that time

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from then on

cf. e-toⁿ (ett̨) - therefore; e-ti-tʰaⁿ (etttʰą) - from then on

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ (ttǫtttʰą) - therefore, from that time [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya (ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy) - Therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said (before that it was much colder than it is now, now we have the female Winter) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-doⁿ-e-di-tʰoⁿ (doⁿedtʰoⁿ) - therefore, consequently [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-doⁿ (e-dⁿ) - therefore [FL-Osage]; e-taⁿ (tą) - therefore [CQ-Osage]; e-daⁿ (édaⁿ) - so, therefore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-dsi-toⁿ (e-ds-toⁿ) - thence; from that place [FL-Osage]; e-ji-khaⁿ (ejíkhaⁿ) - there, from, thither, from that place [Kaw]

 

that, half of that

miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure)

ex: miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

ex: miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

ex: miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

 

miⁿ-de-na-ska (mįdnaska) - half that size

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure); de-na-ska (denask) - size, of this size; e-naⁿ-ska (enąska) - of a certain size; ha-na-ska (hnask) - how big/small, what size; ka-na-ska (kanask) - size, of that size; kaⁿ-ze a-na-ska (kk̨ze naska) - of equal or like size; koi-na-ska (kinask) - size of that distant object; she-na-ska (enask) - size, big enough, of that size; i-kaⁿ-ska (kąska) - measure; i-kaⁿ-ska-de (kąskde) - measure, distance, money, etc.

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na-ska (wiⁿdnaska) - half size, half that size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-thoⁿ-ska (wiⁿdthoⁿska) - half, half the size, half as big [Omaha/Ponca]; a-thoⁿ-ska (athoⁿka) - size [Omaha]; goⁿ-ze thoⁿ-ska (goⁿ- thoⁿ-ka) - same in size, as large as [FL-Osage]; ha-thoⁿ-ska (h-thoⁿ-ka) - size, as measurement [FL-Osage]; the-thoⁿ-ska (th thoⁿ-ka) - this size [FL-Osage]

 

miⁿ-de-naⁿ (mįdną) - half that many, quantity

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure); de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many; kaⁿ-ze a-na (kk̨ze na) - equal in quantity, number; koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-na (wiⁿdna) - half the number or quantity: refers to what is collective, as corn, wheat, language, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

 

miⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (mįdtʰǫ), miⁿ-de-toⁿ (mįdttǫ) - half that length

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd) - half (of that measure); de-tʰoⁿ (detʰ̨), de-tʰaⁿ (detʰ̨) - long, this (much); ka-tʰaⁿ (katʰ̨) - that long, of that length; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ (kk̨ze tʰą) - of equal length; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-de-tʰoⁿ (wiⁿdtʰoⁿ) - half, half full, as a glass, pail, or barrel; half the length [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half [Omaha]; mi i-doⁿ-be wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (mi idoⁿbe wiⁿdetoⁿ) - half hour [Omaha]; hoⁿ wiⁿ-de-toⁿ (hoⁿwiⁿde toⁿ) - midnight [Omaha]

 

miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ha (mįdtʰąha) - half that depth

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); a-tʰaⁿ-ha (atʰ̨ha) - how deep; de-tʰaⁿ-ha (detʰ̨ha) - deep, this much; kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ha (kk̨ze tʰąha) - equal or like depth; she-tʰaⁿ-ha (etʰ̨ha) - deep enough, a certain depth

Dhegiha: e-tʰoⁿ-ha (tʰoⁿha) - that deep or high [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ-ha (shetʰⁿha) - that deep, tall, or high [Omaha/Ponca]; the-tʰoⁿ-ha (thetʰⁿha) - this depth or height [Omaha/Ponca]

 

miⁿ-de-tʰaⁿ-ka (mįdtʰąk) - half that height

cf. miⁿ-de (mįd-) - half (of that measure); a-tʰaⁿ-ka (atʰąkk) - how tall, how high; de-tʰaⁿ-ka (detʰąkk), de-taⁿ-ka (dettąk) - tall, this (much); kaⁿ-ze a-tʰaⁿ-ka (kk̨ze atʰąkk) - of equal height; she-tʰaⁿ-ka (etʰąkk), she-taⁿ-ka (ettąk) - tall enough, a certain height

 

that, he was that

e-tʰaⁿ (etʰ̨) - he was that [JOD]

cf. e-tʰaⁿ-zhi (etʰ̨i) - it is not he [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - to be suitable for, becoming, befitting [Omaha/Ponca]; e-tʰoⁿ-zhi (tʰoⁿzhi) - to be unsuitable or improper for; to be not his place (to do such a thing); to be unbecoming [Omaha/Ponca]

 

that, in that case

ko-i-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]

ko-i-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so(were)/3rd pl./past sign [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so they did (in the past), they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ (kiǫ pp ną, ttįtti wdanį pp ną) - that is how they did/were, in the olden times, thats how they dressed [JOD]

 

that, in that way

ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ (kįttą), (kįtta), (kiǫttą) - so, thus, accordingly, in that way, then, therefore

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, a-shi-ti hi, i-ya, wa-sa niⁿ (kįttą, itti h, iy, was nį) - thus, the black bear went outside, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫn̨ wak̨ kd ǫn̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ maⁿ-te aⁿ-ko-ka-shke kʰe a-shka hi a-kdi (kįttą mątt ąkkak kʰe ka h akd) - then I had come back, very close to where we tied the canoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-zhaⁿ-ke e-zhi pa, wa-hiⁿ-ska ho-taⁿ hi aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kdi ni-he, i-ye pa (kįttą ęke i p, wah̨ska httą hi ̨kinį kd-nih, iy pa) - then his step-daughters said, bring back some really good calico cloth [JOD]

 

that, is that so

hoⁿ-e (h̨e) - is that so? [OM]

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - what, how, in what manner; e (e) - question sign

ex: hoⁿ-e (h̨e), haⁿ-e (h̨e) - what happened? whats the matter? [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we, aⁿ-te, i-yi (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe, ątʔ, iy) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband, they said to her, dead to me (he died on me), she said [JOD]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ a-doⁿ (hoⁿ -doⁿ) - why; what [FL-Osage]; hoⁿ (h̨ǫ), ha-oⁿ (haǫ) - do how, do however, do in whatever way; do what; do what with, do what about; do what ever with, do whatever [CQ-Osage]; hoⁿ-tsʰe (h̨ǫcʰe) - how; however [CQ-Osage]

 

that, it will be like that

e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte), e-koⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so shall it be, it will be like that [JOD]

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; te (tte) - future, potential or optative marker, shall

ex: e-kaⁿ te (ek̨ tte) - so/will be [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi (hau, ek̨ tte, iy) - yes, it will be like that, he said; yes, so shall it be, he said [JOD]

ex: hau, e-kaⁿ te, i-yi i-ya-we (hau, ek̨ tte, iy iywe) - he said, yes, it will be like that, they say; he said, yes, so shall it be, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti knoⁿ-ke te i-ka-zo-zo ka-xe a-taⁿ a-ki-niⁿ hi taⁿ toⁿ-we taⁿ naⁿ-zha, e-koⁿ te, i-ke (kįttą tti knǫk tte kazzo kγe att̨ aknį h tą t̨we tą n̨a, ek̨ tte, ik) - then he wrote the letter (asking) to marry and took it to her, when she looked at it she said, so shall it be (it will be so) [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ tʰe (gaⁿ te) - it shall be so [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

Dhegiha: te (te) - future sign, will, let, please [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse (ṭse) - shall or will go [FL-Osage]; ʰtse (ʰce) - may it be that, let, allow, have, tell, lets; tse (ce) - future or potential aspect: shall or will; please [Kaw]

 

that, just like that

e-kaⁿ-xti (kąxt), e-koⁿ-xti (ek̨xti) - really, just so

cf. e-kaⁿ (ek̨), e-koⁿ (ek̨) - like, thus, like that, so; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ-xti tʰi-kde naⁿ, iya (ę ek̨xt tʰikd ną, iy) - then suddenly it became just like that (as rabbit had hoped), it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ-xti do-ti te (ek̨xti dtti tt) - just so/it came up [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ-xti (-gaⁿ-qti) - just so; exactly so; to be just so [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ-xti (egoⁿxti) - truly, truth, truthful [Omaha]; e-goⁿ-xtsi (e-gⁿ-xtsi) - exaxt, precise, downright, real, in reality [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ-xtsi (ek̨xci) - correct, correctly [CQ-Osage]

 

that, like that

e-koⁿ (ek̨), (kǫ), e-kaⁿ (ek̨), (eką), a-kaⁿ (ką) - so, like, as, thus, like that

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - so or like that/very/I make it/will [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ pa-xe te (ek̨ ppγe tt) - I will make it like that [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ (kįttą ką) - then/so [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ haⁿ-pa haⁿ-ke taⁿ a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (kįttą ką nį hąp͓ hąke t̨ ate tį attah) - so then it was almost day when I had a strong urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨) - yes/so/I thought that [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - yes, I thought it was so! said the Rabbit [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ (kǫ nį) - so/the moving one or it was [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ niⁿ zho-wa hi a-te-zhe zh-ka da-a-de kaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (kǫ nį ow hi ate ka dad k̨ mįkʰ) - so, I urinated a little bit, I sent a little off as I was sitting there [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ naⁿ, iya (ę ek̨ ną, iy) - and it was so, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ ka-xe a-wi-ka-zhi (ek̨ kγe wikai) - I commanded you to do so

ex: e-koⁿ do-ti te-ka-ha ka-xe (ek̨ dtti ttekaha kγe) - so/to come up or forth/he made it [JOD]

ex: e-kaⁿ (ek̨) - did so (3rd. person) [JOD]

ex: shi e-koⁿ (i ek̨) - you reached there/as [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ shi e-koⁿ, te-di-da-we, i-ye niⁿ, i-ya (ę i ek̨, tʔdidawĕ, iy nį, iy) - then you went and thus, they killed you, she was saying, it is said [JOD]

ex: o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ (odwaki ek̨) - he sided with them/as [JOD]

ex: e-toⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka o-do-wa-ki e-kaⁿ, za-ni-xti te-wa-de koⁿ-da naⁿ, i-ya (ett̨ mat̨ke, nkkaka odwaki ek̨, zan-xti tʔwade k̨da ną, iy) - therefore rabbit, who sided with the Indians, wanted to kill all of the black bears, it is said [JOD]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

ex: shi-zhi-ka e-koⁿ (ika ek̨) - child/like [JOD]

ex: ee! i-yi i-ya wa-pa-iⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, shi-zhi-ka e-koⁿ (ee! iy iy wappą nįkʰ, ika ek̨) - the blood said, Yes, just like a child [JOD]

ex: e-zhi hi e-koⁿ (i h ek̨) - another or different one/very/like [JOD]

ex: de haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ-zhi hi e-de, e-zhi hi e-koⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke kaⁿ hi (de h̨ka ęke etʰ̨i h ed, i h ek̨, mat̨ke ką h) - surely this is not Haⁿ-kas son, hes different, sure enough looks like a rabbit [JOD]

ex: e-koⁿ wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he (ek̨ wąąnkext pʰ anih) - as/I in a very bad humor/I have been coming [JOD]

ex: i-kaⁿ aⁿ-xdi hi tʰe, e-koⁿ wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he (ikk̨ ̨xdi hi tʰe, ek̨ wąąnkext pʰ anih) - my grandmother almost beat the life out of me, so I have been coming in a very bad mood [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gaⁿ (e-gⁿ) - as; so; that being the case [JOD-Omaha]; e-gaⁿ (-gaⁿ) - so; to be so; to do as another has said or done; to be as another has said; used as the equivilant of the English adverbial ending, -ly (like); as, so; for the same purpose; used in forming a strong imperative; used in formimg a strong optative [JOD-Omaha]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - as, like, kind, type, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like; resembling; verily; very [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true!, correct!, thats the way!, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so, be as [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so; to be that kind, be such [Kaw]

 

that, of that sort

ko-i-shoⁿ (kiǫ) - so or of that sort [JOD]

ko-i-shoⁿ (kį) - so, or in that case [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - then, despite, notwithstanding

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so(were)/3rd pl./past sign [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, i-ya-we (kiǫ pp ną, iywe) - so they did (in the past), they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ pa naⁿ, ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ (kiǫ pp ną, ttįtti wdanį pp ną) - that is how they did/were, in the olden times, thats how they dressed [JOD]

 

that, oh that

e-ska (ska) - oh that [JOD]

e-ska (ska) - desiderative particle, sentence initial

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-e i-ye tʰi-kda-kda-pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkie ye tʰkdakd-ppa ek̨ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who begin to talk, saying words here and there, not speaking plainly or connectedly, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, shi-zhi-ka o-ki-ki-a-wi taⁿ i-ye da-shnaⁿ-shnaⁿ-zhi pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, ika okkkkiawi-tą ye dan̨nąi-pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like children who speak to one another very plainly without missing a word, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to maⁿ-di-taⁿ pi-oⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ tʰi-da-da naⁿ e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto mądttą ppį tt̨nį tʰidda ną kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like a boy that knows how to pull a bow well and begins to run now and then for short distances, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, she-to naⁿhaⁿ maⁿ-di-taⁿ si-si hi naⁿ-we e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, tto nąh̨ mądttą sis hi ną-w kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the grown boys who pull a bow and are very active (able to run swiftly and far), it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: e-ska, wi-zhiⁿ-ke, iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na maⁿ-o-zhi kiⁿ koⁿ pa naⁿ wi-a-de pa e-koⁿ kaⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (ska, wįke, įtʰ̨na m̨o kʔ̨ k̨ pp ną wide pp kǫ kką, iy iy mat̨ke) - oh my son I hope that you become like the young unmarried men (able to take wives) whom I have seen carrying quivers on their backs, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ska-na (skana) - I hope; would that; I wish a sign of the optative mode, occurring at the beginning of a clause, as kaⁿ stands at the end eskana _______ kaⁿ [JOD-Omaha]

 

that, piling up the pieces in that manner

ko-i-shoⁿ-zhi (koįi) - piling up the pieces in that manner [JOD]

cf. koi-shoⁿ (kį) - so or of that sort; so or in that case [JOD]; a-zhi (i) - put onto; o-zhi (o) - put into

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti ta-zho ta-bi-ze ka-xe koi-shoⁿ-zhi i-ti-kde-kaⁿ ni-kʰa (kįttą ett tta tbize kγe koįi tikdką nikʰ) - then/there/venison/dried by heat/made/piling up the pieces in that manner/like a hose/they were (pl. classifier) [JOD]

that, say that

i-ke (ik) - say (the preceding) to someone i-da-a-ki-he (idakih) - I, i-da-da-ki-she (iddaki) - you, i-ke-a-we (ikewe) - they

i-ke (ik) - said the preceding [JOD]

ex: i-da-a-ki-he (idakih) - I said it to him [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-da-ki-she (ąn̨daki) - you say it to me [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-da-ki-sha (ąn̨dakia!) - you say it to me! [JOD]

ex: i-ke niⁿ (ik nį) - he/she was saying it to her/him [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ i-ke taⁿ (ę ek̨ ik tą) - so/he addressed him then [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ e-koⁿ i-ke taⁿ (ę ek̨ ik tą) - and when he (Grizzly bear) had said that to him (Rabbit) [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha, i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah, ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ha-ki i-da-we, i-ke (waxʔ twa ttkde hak idwe, ik) - where have the four women that live together gone too? he said to her [JOD]

ex: ha-ki i-da-we i-ba-haⁿ miⁿ-kʰe, shi-naⁿ i-ke (hak idwe bahą mįkʰ, ną ik) - I dont know where they went, she said to him again [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ na-xnaⁿ ki-knaⁿ, i-ke (wittiką naxn̨ kkn̨, ik) - my grandfather hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: na-xnaⁿ da-ki-knaⁿ koⁿ-bda wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (naxn̨ dakikną kkǫbd wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, I want you to hide me (your relation), she said to him [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: wi-ti-kaⁿ, wa-xo miⁿ de-do i-hi naⁿ i-da-de hoⁿ-zhi ae, i-ke (wittik̨, waxʔ mį ddo hi ną dade hǫi ae, ik) - my grandfather, did you not see a woman that arrived here? he said to him [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-ke (ąn̨ke) - he said it to me [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-e ni-ka di-ta, i-ke-a-we (h̨e nkka dtta, ikewe) - what is the matter/what happened with your man/husband, they said to her [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-ge (eg) - to say something to one, against another; to say it to one, in addressing him; used as a strong assertion, either in affimation or in denial [JOD-Omaha]; e-ge (ge) - to say so, to say that [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-ʰki-ge (e-ḳ-ge) - to say to one another [FL-Osage]; e-gi-ge (gige), e-gi-gi-he (gigihe) - say anything to another [Kaw]

 

she-e (e) - to say that she-he (he) - I, she-she (e) - you

cf. she () - that; e (e), i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - to say

ex: she-he (he) - I say that [JOD]

ex: she-he a-ni-he (he nihe) - I say that/I who move (=I say that) [JOD]

ex: she-he (eh) - I said that [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e! te-a-de kaⁿ she-he (įkk̨-e! tʔed k̨ eh) - my grandmother! I said that because I killed him [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-e (sh-e) - to say that is so ... to think that it would be so [Omaha/Ponca]; she-pshe (sh-pshe) - I said so [FL-Osage]; she e-she (e e) - you say that [CQ-Osage]

 

ko-i-she (ki i) - you say that

cf. ko-i (ki) - that; i-she (i) - you say

ex: ko-i-she (ki i) - you say that [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ, i-kaⁿ-e! haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ ko-i-she e, i-yi i-ya (ę, ikk̨-e! hąn̨ttą ki i e, iy iy) - and then he said, grandmother, why do you say that? it is said [JOD]

 

ko-i-she-sha-zhi (ye tʰe kie-i) - you did not say those [JOD]

cf. ko-i-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner; i-she (i) - you say; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi (ye tʰe kie-i) - words/the/you did not say those [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye tʰe ko-i-she-sha-zhi naⁿ niⁿ-tʰe (hhox! mat̨ke, ye tʰe kie-i n̨ nįtʰ) - really! Rabbit, you have never talked in this manner before now [JOD]

 

that, so

ko-i-she (koi), (kie) - that; so; that part [JOD]

ko-i-she (kie) - aforementioned words or manner

ex: ko-i-she (kie) - so [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-niⁿ (kie ̨nį) - he has been treating me so [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I think that he has been treating my kinsman so, it is said the Rabbits son said [JOD]

 

that, who did that

ho-wa ka-xe (hwa kγe) - who did that?

hu-wa ka-xe (hwa kγe) - who done that? [MS]

cf. ho-wa (hwa) - who; hu-wa (hwa) - who [OM]; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: ho-wa (hwa) - which, which one [CQ-Osage]; ho-wa (hówa) - what; which one [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ho-wa thiⁿ-ke (h-wa thiⁿ-ke) - which one (sitting) [FL-Osage]

 

thats all I have to say to you

ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

cf. ka-shoⁿ (kaǫ) - thats all, thats enough; o-ki-e (okkie), o-ki (ok), o-ke (okk), o-kye (okye) - speak, talk with one; wi (wi) - I to you, first person singular acting on second person; miⁿ-kʰe (mįkʰ) - 1sg continuative sitting

 

thats all

di-shtaⁿ (dit̨) - finish, complete bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - I, ti-shtaⁿ (tttą) - you

cf. a-di-shtaⁿ (ditą) - stop work (for the day), cease an activity; a-da-shtaⁿ (datą) - stop activity with the mouth, talking, drinking, eating, etc.

ex: bdi-shtaⁿ (bdtą) - thats all (Im done, Im finished) [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-shtoⁿ (thishtoⁿ) - finish, complete, release, past [Omaha]; thi-shtoⁿ (thi-shtⁿ) - to stop, to finish [FL-Osage]; thi-shtaⁿ (iitą́) - finish, stop, already did something, be just finished doing something, be finished, be through [CQ-Osage]; yu-shtaⁿ (yushtⁿ) - stop, be finished, let go [Kaw]

 

ni-ke (nik) - to have none, be lacking aⁿ-ni-ke (ąnke) - I, di-ni-ke (dinke) - you

niⁿ-ke (nik͓) - none [JOD]

ex: ni niⁿ-ke (ni nįk) - no water [JOD]

ex: wa-niⁿ-ke-hi-we (wan̨kehiw) - we have none at all [JOD]

ex: ta-taⁿ da-tʰe tʰe niⁿ-ke-hi-wi (tttą datʰ tʰe nįkhiw) - they had nothing to eat, something to eat, they were lacking [JOD]

ex: ma-ze-ni ni-ke (mazni nik) - there aint no milk [MS]

ex: ni-ke hi (nik h) - there is none [OM]

ex: she-to zhi-ka ma-ze-ni ni-ke niⁿ (tto ka mazni nik nį) - little boy aint got no milk [MS]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿg) - lack, to lack, to not have, there is none [Omaha/Ponca]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿge) - blank, obsolete, zero, vanish, nothing, none, erosion, absent, lack [Omaha]; thiⁿ-ge (thiⁿ́-ge) - to have none, nothing [FL-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įįk), iⁿ-ke (įįk) - lack a thing, be devoid of, be lacking, not have something any longer, have nothing [CQ-Osage]; thiⁿ-ke (įk), iⁿ-ke (įk) - be none, be gone, absent, extinct, nonexistent, lacking, pass away, vanish, not, not at all [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ-ge (yⁿg) - lack, none, be none, be without [Kaw]

 

thats all, thats enough

ka-shoⁿ (kaǫ) - thats all, thats enough

cf. ka (k) - that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki[e] mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ (ga-shⁿ) - it is enough; sufficient [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ (kaą) - enough (of some activity), final point, end (e.g., of ones earthly existence) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ ga-xe (ga-shⁿ ga-xe) - to stop work [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ ka-xe (kaą kaγe) - make that the end, stop! stop some activity; put and end to something; cease, stop (lit., make it the final point); reach a point of sufficiency, produce enough of something [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

thats far enough, the end

ka-i-shoⁿ naⁿ (kiǫ n̨) - so far/only, used as ending of a story [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; naⁿ (ną) - only, just, soley, nothing else, nothing but, alone

 

ka i-she-tʰaⁿ-kʰi (k-itʰąkʰ), ka e-she-tʰaⁿ-ki (k-etʰąk) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

ka i-she-tʰaⁿ (k-ietʰ̨) - so far, the end, used as ending of a story [JOD]

cf. ka (k) - that; she-tʰaⁿ (etʰą) - long enough, a certain length

ex: e she-mi i-ta-de taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ zhi-ka hi taⁿ ka-i-she-tʰaⁿ hi taⁿ e-hoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe te ( mi ttad tą nąh̨ ik h tą k-itʰą h tą eh̨ nįkʰ tʔe) - when the girl that was born reached puberty her mother died [JOD]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that far (and no farther); that long (and no longer); the end [Omaha/Ponca]; she-tʰoⁿ (shtʰoⁿ) - that length; that short [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-she-tʰoⁿ (shetʰⁿ) - that so far; as far as that; till then (and no longer); past time; from that time onward [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: she-tʰoⁿ-ki hnoⁿ (shtʰoⁿki hnⁿ) - about that length would be long enough [Omaha/Ponca]

 

ka-shoⁿ (kaǫ) - thats all, thats enough

cf. ka (k) - that; shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

ex: ka-shoⁿ o-wi-ki miⁿ-kʰe (kaǫ owikki[e] mįkʰ) - thats all I have to say to you [MS]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ (ga-shⁿ) - it is enough; sufficient [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ (kaą) - enough (of some activity), final point, end (e.g., of ones earthly existence) [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-shoⁿ ga-xe (ga-shⁿ ga-xe) - to stop work [FL-Osage]; ka-shoⁿ ka-xe (kaą kaγe) - make that the end, stop! stop some activity; put and end to something; cease, stop (lit., make it the final point); reach a point of sufficiency, produce enough of something [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

shoⁿ iⁿ (̨ į) - that will do [JOD]

cf. shoⁿ (ǫ) - the end, enough; iⁿ (̨) - period, oral stop; iⁿ (į) - declarative particle, female speech

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-iⁿ da (shⁿ-iⁿ da) - enough; satisfying [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - enough; that will do [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - quit; stop [Omaha]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - complete; perfect; it is done [FL-Osage]

 

that, on that side of

ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of

cf. ko-ta (kta) - over there, on that side of, on the other side, beyond, yonder, farther off, farther over there, ahead; tʰe-ta (tʰtta) - to the, at the [JOD]; i-di-shaⁿ (idį) - to go around an object [JOD]; e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of; o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle

Dhegiha: gu-da-thi-shaⁿ (g-da-i-caⁿ), gu-a-thi-shaⁿ (g-a-i-caⁿ) - beyond, on that side of [JOD-Omaha]; go-da thi-shoⁿ (g-da thi-shoⁿ) - on the other side [FL-Osage]

  Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe-ta (g-da-tĕ́-t͓a), gu-a-tʰe-ta (g-a-tĕ́-t͓a) - to the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da-tʰe (g-da-tĕ), gu-a-tʰe (g-a-tĕ) - the std. in. ob. or col. of in. objects beyond (another place) [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: gu-da (gda), gu-a (ga) - on that side of, beyond (a person or place), yonder, farther off [JOD-Omaha]; go-da (g-da) - ahead [FL-Osage]; ko-ta (koot) - farther over there, beyond, on the other side of something [CQ-Osage]; ko-ta (kota) - that yonder, that (person or thing) over there (beyond speaker or hearer); the farther one in space or time [CQ-Osage]; go-da (gda) - yonder [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-ta (tĕ́-t͓a) - at or to the std. in. ob., etc. [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: i-thi-shoⁿ-ha (-thi-shoⁿ-ha) - to detour, to go around [FL-Osage]; i-thi-shaⁿ-ha (iąha) - detour around, go around, avoid [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - around, around someone or something, moving circularly like the hands of a clock, go around, circle, to go around in a circle, to go around something  [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

 

thaw with the hands

di-xpaⁿ (dixp̨) - thaw with the hands bdi-xpaⁿ (bdxpą) - I, ti-xpaⁿ (ttxpą) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xpaⁿ (i-qpⁿ) - to make pliable by grasping in the hands; to restore warmth to a cold limb by manipulation [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xpoⁿ (thi-xpⁿ) - to thaw out with the hand [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: xpoⁿ (xpoⁿ) - thaw, to thaw out [FL-Osage]; xpaⁿ (xpⁿ) - thaw, thawed out, applied only to solids that have been frozen, as a hide [Kaw]

 

 

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