English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

tribal council

ki-sto taⁿ-ka (kist tt̨ka) - tribal council

cf. ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather; council of a gens; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - to sit in council; ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - U.S. Congress; ki-sto ta (kist tt) - tipi [MS]; sto-de (stde) - collect, heap, pile, gather

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a season [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]; gi-sto (gistó) - assemble, as people do; gather [Kaw]; gu-sto (gustó) - assemble, meet together [Kaw]

 

tribe, Caddo tribe

so-de (sde), su-de (sde) - Caddo Indians

su-de (sdĕ) - Kwapa name for the Caddo Indians [JOD]

su-de (sŭdeh) - Caddo Indians (cadeau) [GI]

ka-do (kdo) - Caddo Indian [ASG]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ wa-sa-be (pathiⁿ waabe) - Caddo Tribe [Omaha]; hiⁿ-sha (hiⁿ-sha) - Caddo Indians [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-sha (hįį) - Caddo tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; hi-sha (hish) - Caddo tribe or people, they dwell south of the Osage and near the Wichitas [Kaw]

 

tribe, Cherokee tribe

sha-da-ki (adkki), sha-da-ke (adkke) - Cherokee

sha-da-ki (adkki) - Cherokee Indians [OM]

sha-da-ki (ca-d-ki) - Kwapa name for the Cherokee Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: che-thu-ki (ch-thu-ki) - Cherokee [Omaha]; sha-la-ki (laki), sha-ke (ake) - Cherokee tribe, or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-ya-ki (shayki), tse-le-ki (celek) - Cherokee tribe [Kaw]

 

tribe, Cheyenne tribe

sha-haⁿ (ca-haⁿ́) - Kwapa name for the Cheyenne Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: sha hi-e-the (sha hethe) - Cheyenne Tribe [Omaha]; ʰta-tse o-maⁿ-i (ʰtaceom̨i) - Cheyenne tribe ot tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-hi (shah), sha-ya-niⁿ (shayniⁿ), sha-ya-ni (shayni) - Cheyenne; Cheyenne tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Chickasaw tribe

ti-ka-zha (ti-k-jă) - Kwapa name for the Chickasaw Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ʰtsi-ge-shi (ṭs-ge-shi) - the Osage name for the Chickasaw Tribe [FL-Osage]; tsi-ka-sa (ckasa) - Chickasaw tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Choctaw tribe

ta-xta (t-qta) - Kwapa name for the Choctaw Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tsa-ta (cat) - Choctaw tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Comanche tribe

pa to-ka (p-tu-kă) - Kwapa name for the Comanche Indians [JOD]

cf. pa (ppa) - nose; to-ka (tkka) - wet

Dhegiha: pa doⁿ-ka (pdoⁿka) - Comanche, Paducah [Omaha/Ponca]; pa duⁿ-ka (pduⁿka) - Comanche Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa doⁿ-ʰka (p̣-doⁿ-ḳa) - the Osage name for the Comanche Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpa to-ʰka (ʰp toʰka) - Comanche tribe or tribal member, Kiowa tribe or tribal member, lit., wet noses, dew on the head [CQ-Osage]; pa do-ka (pdoka) - Comanches or Padocah, Paducah Indians, tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Creek tribe

ma-shko-ki (makki) - Creek Indians [MS]

ma-shko-ki (mo-ck-k͓i) - Kwapa name for the Creek or Muskoki Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿ-shk-ge) - the Osage name for the Creek Tribe of Indians [FL-Osage]; mu-sko-ke (muskke) - Creek Indians [CQ-Osage]; moⁿ-shko-ge (moⁿshkge) - Creek tribe, Muskogee [Kaw]

 

tribe, Delaware tribe

wa-paⁿ-da-kya (w-paⁿ-da-kyǎ) - Kwapa name for the Delaware Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-ba-ni-ʰki (w-ba-ni-ḳi) - the Osage name for the Delaware Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-ba-ni-ʰka ga-xa (w-ba-ni-ḳa ga-xa) - the name given Delaware Creek, Okla., by the Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-pa ni-ʰka (wpa nʰka) - Delaware tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-ba-ni-ke (wbanke) - Delaware tribe and people, the Abenaki [Kaw]

 

tribe, enemy within the tribe

o-zhaⁿ wa-kniⁿ-zhi (ą wakn̨i) - enemy within the tribe, a bad person to sleep among

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - sleep, lie, recline;

 

tribe, friend of different tribe

wa-do-ta-di (wadttadi) - friend of different tribe

Dhegiha: tho-da (th-da) - peace, peaceful [FL-Osage]; tho-da-the (th-da-the) - to be friendly, to be on friendly terms with another person, peaceful relationship between two tribes, reciprocity [FL-Osage]; wa-tho-da-the (wa-th-da-the) - to make peace [FL-Osage]; wa-tho-da-ʰki-the (wa-th-da-ḳi-the) - relative, relation, kinship [FL-Osage]; u-tho-da-ʰki-the (-tho-da-ḳi-the) - relative, kindred, natural ties of kin [FL-Osage]; tho-ta-the (tae) - regard as a friend [CQ-Osage]; tho-da-ʰki-e (th-da-ḳi-e) - reconcile, reconciliation [FL-Osage]; tho-ta-ʰki-the (taʰkie) - become aquainted with each other, regard each as friends, hold each other dear, take or regard each other as relatives, be related [CQ-Osage]; i-tho-ta-ʰki-the (iitaʰkie) - make a friend of, person who is made into a friend [CQ-Osage]

 

tribe, head chief of a tribe

ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka (kahke tt̨ka) - head chief of a tribe, principal chief

ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka (k͓a-h-k͓e tá-k͓a) - masculine name, Large Chief, Big Chief [JOD]

ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka (kahke tⁿka) - chief of tribe [ASG]

cf. ka-hi-ke (kahke) - chief; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

ex: wa-sa ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka niⁿ-kʰe ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi hi e-ti hi-wi naⁿ te-da-we i-ya i-we-ke i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (was kahke tt̨ka nįkʰe nkkaka hi hi tti hwi n̨ tʔdaw iy iwke iy mat̨ke nįkʰe) - they say that a great many people went there and they killed the black bear principal chief, the rabbit said to them, they say [JOD]

ex: ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka te-di-ki-de ni-kʰa-she shoⁿ-te niⁿ-kʰe she iⁿ (kahke tt̨ka tʔdikid nikʰe ǫt nįkʰe į) - youall whose principal chief has been killed, here are the testicles [JOD]

ex: e hoⁿ-pe niⁿ-kʰe, hu-wa-ke ki-shoⁿ-i naⁿ, ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke knoⁿ-ke te (e hǫp͓ nįkʰ huwake kįi ną kahke tt̨ka ęke knǫk tte) - that shoe, whoever it fits, Big Chiefs son will marry her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-zha ka-ki da-i ke ka-hi-ke taⁿ-ka e-zhi-ke a-ki-da-i ke taⁿ hi (kįttą a kki d-i ke kahke ttąka eke kid-i k tą h) - then/to dance/there/they went/the pl./chief/large/his son/they took part with (=danced)/the pl. when/she arrived [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-hi-ge ʰtoⁿ-ga (ga-h-ge-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Big Chief, personal name, refers to the high position of the hereditary chief [FL-Osage]; ga-hi-ge taⁿ-ga (gahge tⁿga) - Large Chief, male name [Kaw]

 

tribe, Ho-chunk or Winnebago tribe

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga), hu ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person, these are related to the Dhegiha (Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Quapaw), the Chiwere (Ioway, Otoe, Missouria, and including Winnebago/Hochank) and the Dakotan (Lakota, Dakota, Assiniboine, Stoney), it is also a name used by the Assiniboine and the Hochank in reference to themselves, where it is interpreted as big voice, loud voice, or rough voice [Kaw]

 

tribe, hunting or migrating as a tribe

ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - hunting as a tribe; migrating as a tribe; migrating party [JOD]

ka-xnaⁿ (kaxn̨) - migrate, go on hunting expedition

cf. ka-xnaⁿ o-zhoⁿ-ke (kaxn̨ ǫke) - migratory route, hunting route

ex: ka-xnaⁿ hi ni-kʰa (kaxn̨ h nikʰ) - they were camping while hunting, they were on a hunting expedition [JOD]

ex: h̨tʰąhi nkkaka anhittxti tt̨į-hi-pp iy, kaxn̨ (hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ni-ka-shi-ka a-na-hi-te-xti taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa i-ya, kaxn̨) - then a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-xnaⁿ a-na-hi-te taⁿ-iⁿ-hi-pa-naⁿ, i-ya (in̨ kaxn̨ anhitte tt̨į-hi-pp-ną, iy) - again a great many people, members of a hunting party, came in sight, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-xthoⁿ (gaqthⁿ) - hunting party, a hunting party including all or most of a tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xthoⁿ-the (ga-xthⁿ-the) - to migrate, to go on a hunting expedition [FL-Osage]; ka-loⁿ-the (kaalⁿe) - travel, migrate, go on a hunting expedition [CQ-Osage]; ga-xlaⁿ (gaxlⁿ) - migrate, go an on extensive hunting expedition with many or all of the tribe; to go with a large party, each man taking his household [Kaw]

 

tribe, Indian tribe

zho-zhi-te e-zhi (otte i) - Indian tribe, different Indian [ASG]

cf. zho-zhi-te (otte) - Indian (recent); e-zhi (i) - another, different, other

Dhegiha: a-zhi (jĭ) - another; not the same; different [JOD-Omaha]; a-zhi (azhi) - strange [Omaha]; e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ei) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable; different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (ézhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]

 

tribe, Iowa tribe

pa-xo-te (pqutĕ) - Kwapa name for the Iowa Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ma-qu-de (mqude) - the Iowa tribe, an Iowa person [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-xu-de (mxude) - Iowa Tribe, corruption of paxude grey head [Omaha]; ʰp-xo-dse (p̣-xo-dse), ba-xo-dse (b-xo-dse) - the Osage name for the Iowa Indians [FL-Osage]; pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway or Iowa Indians, a tribe living in Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma and in earlier days Iowa, lit., gray snow [CQ-Osage]; pa-xo-je (pxoje), pa-xo-tse (pxoce) - Ioway tribe; Ioway person or people, a tribe of the Chiwere group, the other tribes being the Otoe and Missoria. They were the ancient allies of the Ponca and Omaha, to whom they are related [Kaw]

 

tribe, Kaskaskia tribe

ka-ski-a-ski-a (kskiaskia) - Kaskaskia Indian, a few still exist and live near the Kwapa Reservation [ASG]

ka-ski-a-ski-a-we (kskiaskiwe) - Kaskaskia Indians [ASG]

 

tribe, Kaw tribe

kaⁿ-se (kańse), (ksĕ) - Kwapa name for the Kansa Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-ze (koⁿe) - Kansa Tribe, Kaw Tribe [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-ze (ḳⁿ-e) - Kaw Indians [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-ze (ʰk̨ąze) - Kaw, Kansa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-ze (kaⁿze) - Kansa tribe, clan, the Kaws, a Kaw person [Kaw]

 

tribe, Kickapoo tribe

ki-ka-po (k͓ik͓pu) - Kwapa name for the Kickapoo Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-ga-bu (hgabu) - Kickapoo Tribe [Omaha]; i-ʰka-ʰpu (-ḳa-p̣u), i-ga-bu (-ga-bu) - a Kickapoo Indian, Kickapoo Indian [FL-Osage]; ki-ʰka-po (kiʰkpo) - Kickapoo Indians [CQ-Osage]; ki-ka-bu (kikbu), ki-gha-bo (kighbo) - Kickapoo tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Kiowa tribe

ka-yu-wa (kyuwa) - Kiowa Indian [ASG]

ka-yu-wa-we (kayuwwe) - Kiowa Indians [ASG]

Dhegiha: ʰka-thu-wa (ḳ-thu-wa) - the Osage name for the Kiowa Tribe [FL-Osage]; ka-yo-wa (káyowa) - Kiowa tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Miami tribe

ma-me (ḿ-mĕ) - Kwapa name for the Miami Indians [JOD]

 

tribe, Modoc tribe

maⁿ-ta (maⁿ́t͓a) - Kwapa name for the Modoc Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: maⁿ-to-we (mⁿtowe) - a tribe living east of the Kaws in Indian Territory, their hair was short, reaching a little below the ears [Kaw]

 

tribe, nation

o-taⁿ-knaⁿ (ttąkną) - tribe, nation

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into

Dhegiha: o-taⁿ-maⁿ-laⁿ (otⁿmaⁿlaⁿ) - to dwell within village [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (tⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - a tribe or nation dwelling in a village; hence, a tribe, nation, or people; modern: a village, town, or city of civilized people [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (toⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - village, town [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (ṭⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ) - the common name for the gens (clans) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ-la (ʰt̨wąla) - clan [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ-laⁿ (táⁿmaⁿlaⁿ) - town, camp, village, community [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

tribe, Nez Perce tribe

i-na-shpe (nacpĕ) - Kwapa name for the Nez Perc Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: pe-ga zuⁿ-de (pega uⁿde) - Nez Perce Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-de (p̣e-g-on-de) - the Nez Perc Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dse (p̣e-g-oⁿ-dse), ʰpe-ga zoⁿ-dsi (p̣e-ga oⁿ-dsi) - Crow Tribe, so called by the Osage Indians [FL-Osage]; pe-ga-zaⁿ-je (pegzaⁿje), pe-ga zaⁿ-de (pegzaⁿde) - Nez Perce or Sahaptin tribe or people, lit. hair in braids over the forehead [Kaw]

 

tribe, Osage tribe

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage

wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage Indians [MS]

wa-zha-zhe (wajje) - Kwapa name for the Osage Indians [JOD]

wa-sha-zhi (wai) - Osage Indians [OM)]

Dhegiha: wa-zha-zhe (wazhazhe) - an Osage, the Osage Tribe, the Osages, they belong with the K͓aⁿze, Ugaqpa, Umaⁿhaⁿ, and Paka, to the egiha group of the Siouan Family [Omaha]; wa-zha-zhe (wa-zh-zhe) - name of the Osage Tribe, corrupted by the French to Osage [FL-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wae) - Osage [CQ-Osage]; wa-zha-zhe (wazhzhe) - Osage tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Otoe-Missouria tribe

wa-zho-xda (wajqdă) - Kwapa name for the Missouria and perhaps the Otoe Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-zho-xtha (wa-zh-xtha) - Oto Tribe [FL-Osage]; wa-zho-la (wala) - Oto tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-zho-xla (wazhxla), wa-sho-xla (washxla) - Otoe tribe or people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thu-ta-da (wathtada) - Oto Tribe [Omaha]; wa-do-ta-ta (wadtata), wa-do-ta-daⁿ (wadtadaⁿ) - Otoe tribe or people, according to MR, this is a synonym for washxla [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni u-ta-chi (nitachi) - Missouri Tribe [Omaha]; ni-sho-je (nishje) - Missouri tribe or people, the Missouri people call themselves Nita Ci, but the early French travelers called them Emissourites, Missourites, and Missouris [Kaw]

 

tribe, Ottawa tribe

ta-wa (t-wa) - Kwapa name for the Ottawa Indians [JOD]

 

tribe, Pawnee tribe

pa-ni-ma-ha (ppanimha) - Pawnee

pa-ni-ma-ha (ppanimha) - Pawnee Indians [MS]

pa-ni-ma-ha (pnimaha) - Kwapa name for the Pawnee Indians, very probably this name refers to the Skidi alone [JOD]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ-ma-hoⁿ (pthiⁿmhoⁿ) - Skidi or Pawnee Loups, a tribe of the Pawnees [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpa-iⁿ moⁿ-hoⁿ (p̣a-iⁿ moⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for a band of the Pawnees known as Shki-thi [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (p̣-thiⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for the Pawnee Indians [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thi-ma-ha (ʰpamaha), ʰpaiⁿ-ma-ha (ʰpįmaha) - Pawnee Indians [CQ-Osage]; pa-yiⁿ-ma-haⁿ (pyiⁿmhaⁿ) - Skidi Pawnee, Pawnee Loup [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-thiⁿ (pthiⁿ) - Pawnee; the Pawnees [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-thiⁿ (pthiⁿ) - Pawnee Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa-iⁿ (p̣a-iⁿ) - the Osage name for the Pawnee Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ (p̣-thiⁿ) - a general term for tribes not related to the Osage [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-thiⁿ (ʰpį), ʰpaiⁿ (ʰpį) - western tribe or tribal member, refers to any tribe from the western United States, Pawnee tribe or tribal member, Kiowa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; pa-yiⁿ (pyiⁿ) - Pawnee [Kaw]

 

tribe, Peoria tribe

i-to-ka (-t͓u-ka) - Kwapa name for the Peoria Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tho-thoⁿ (th-thoⁿ) - Peoria Indian Tribe [FL-Osage]

 

tribe, Piankeshaw tribe

pi-aⁿ-ki-sha (pįkisha) - Piankeshaw Indian [ASG]

pi-aⁿ-ki-sha-we (pąkishwe) - Piankeshaw Indians [ASG]

 

tribe, Ponca tribe

poⁿ-ka (p̨ka) - Ponca Indians [MS]

poⁿ-ka (pōⁿ́-ka), (pá-kă) - Kwapa name for the Ponka Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: poⁿ-ka (pⁿka) - Ponca, a Ponca person [Omaha/Ponca]; poⁿ-ka (poⁿa) - Ponca Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpoⁿ-ʰka (p̣oⁿ′-ḳa) - Ponca Tribe [FL-Osage]; ʰpoⁿ-ʰka (ʰp̨ʰka) - Ponca Tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; paⁿ-ka (pⁿka) - Ponca tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Potawatomi tribe

wa-ho-wa-ha (wahwah) - Kwapa name for the Pottawatami Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-hi u-tha-xa (wahi uthaxa) - Potawatomi Tribe [Omaha]; wa-ho-wa-ha (wahwah) - Potawatomi tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; wa-hi o-ya-ha (whiyaha) - Potawatomi tribe or people [Kaw]

 

tribe, Quapaw tribe

o-ka-xpa (okxpa), o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw [MS, AB, OM]

o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw, people who went downstream, Quapaw gens (clan) of the same tribe, Dwelt on right side of tribal circle

o-ka-xpa (o ̇GxBa) - Quapaw [person or tribe] [FS]

cf. o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; o-ka-xpa-ki-de (okxpakkde) - be adopted as a Quapaw; o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, The down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

tribe, refugee from another tribe

wa-we-di-xe (wawdixe) - refugee (from another tribe)

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-ti-xe (ąn̨ttixe) - you stay with me [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thi-xe (thixe) - a refugee, one who has left his tribe and is staying with another people [Omaha/Ponca]; o-yu-ghe (yughe) - take refuge in [Kaw]

 

tribe, Sac & Fox tribe

sa-ki-a (s-ki-) - Kwapa name for the Sac and Fox Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: za-ge (zge) - the Sak, or Sauk tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; za-ge (ge) - Sauk Tribe [Omaha]; sa-ge-wa (a-g-wa) - Sac and Fox, this term is used when speaking of these tribes by the Osage, Sac Indians, Fox Indians [FL-Osage]; sa-ki-wa (sakwa), sa-ki-wo (sakwo), sa-ki ho (sak ho) - Sac and Fox tribe or tribal member, lit., making it tight [CQ-Osage]

 

tribe, Seminole tribe

si-mi-no-ni (s-mi-n-ni) - Kwapa name for the Seminole Indians [JOD]

 

tribe, Seneca-Cayuga tribe

si-ni-ke (sink͓e) - Kwapa name for the Senecas and Cayugas in Indian Terr. The Kwapa name is identical in sound with si nik͓e, wanting a foot [JOD]

 

tribe, Shawnee tribe

sha-waⁿ-naⁿ (aw̨ną) - Shawnee

sha-waⁿ-naⁿ (aw̨ną) - Shawnee, Shawnee Tribe [OM]

sha-wa-na (ca-w-na) - Kwapa name for the Shawnee Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: sha-wa-na (shah-wah-nah) - Shawnee tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-wa-niⁿ (wanįį) - Shawnee tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; sha-wa-ne (shwane) - Shawnee tribe or people [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ni (zhoⁿ-n) - Shawnee Tribe [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-niⁿ (shoⁿnⁿ) - Shawnee tribe or people [Kaw]

 

sha-da-ki sha-wa-na-we (adkki awanwe) - Black Bob Shawnees [ASG]

cf. sha-da-ki (adkki) - Cherokee; sha-wa-na-we (awanwe) - Shawnee Indians

 

tribe, Sioux tribe

su (su) - Kwapa name for the Dakota Indians, formed from Sioux [JOD]

Dhegiha: shauⁿ (shauⁿ) - Sioux Tribe [Omaha]; ʰpa-ba-wa-xoⁿ (p̣-ba-wa-xoⁿ) - Sioux Indian, the Osage name for the Sioux Tribe of Indians, it means Head-Cutters [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-pa-xoⁿ (ʰppaxǫ) - Sioux tribe or tribal member, cutthroats, lit., nose cutter, head cutter, nose cutter, personal name for a second son [CQ-Osage]; sha-haⁿ (shahⁿ) - Dakota, Dakota tribe or people; Sioux, these form a group which is related to the Dhegiha as well as to the Chiwere. See Paⁿka (Ponca) and Paxoje (Ioway), the term, Sioux includes the Lakota, also called Teton Sioux [Kaw]

 

tribe, Tonkawa tribe

taⁿ-ka-wa (tákawă) - Kwapa name for the Tonkaway (Tonkawa) Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: ni-ka tha-te (nikathate) - Tonkawa Tribe [Omaha]; wa-tha-hni (wa-th-hni) - Tonkawa Tribe, a devourer, swallower [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ni (wanii) - Tonkawa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]

 

tribe, Towakarehu tribe

ta-ho-ka-ni (tahkan) - Kwapa name for the Towakarehu, a clan of the Wichita Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: tu-ka-tha (tu-k-a) - the name of some Indians dwelling near the Wichitas, whose language they speak: probably the To-wa-ka-re-hu, a Wichita gens [JOD-Omaha]; to-la-le (tkale) - Towakarahu, a Wichita clan [Kaw]

 

tribe, Waco tribe

wi-ko (w-ku) - Kwapa name for the Waco Indians, a clan of the Wichita [JOD]

 

tribe, Wichita tribe

wi-si-ta (wsită) - Kwapa name for the Wichita Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: wi-chi-ta (wichita) - Wichita Tribe [Omaha]; wi-tsi-ʰta (w-tsi-ṭa) - a Wichita, Wichitas, Wichita tribe of Indians [FL-Osage]; wi-tsi-ʰta (wciʰta) - Wichita tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; mi-tsi-ta (mtsit) - Wichita people or tribe [Kaw]

 

tribe, Winnebago or Ho-chunk tribe

ho taⁿ-ka (h-ta-k͓a) - Kwapa name for the Winnebago Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago, Hocank, the Winnebagos or Hocank tribe [Omaha/Ponca]; hu toⁿ-ga (htoⁿga) - Winnebago Indian [Omaha]; ho ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga), hu ʰtoⁿ-ga (h-ṭoⁿ-ga) - Winnebago Tribe [FL-Osage]; ho-ʰtaⁿ-ka (hʰtąka) - Winnebago (Hochunk) tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]; ho taⁿ-ga (htaⁿga) - Hochank, also known as Winnebago: tribe or person, these are related to the Dhegiha (Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Quapaw), the Chiwere (Ioway, Otoe, Missouria, and including Winnebago/Hochank) and the Dakotan (Lakota, Dakota, Assiniboine, Stoney), it is also a name used by the Assiniboine and the Hochank in reference to themselves, where it is interpreted as big voice, loud voice, or rough voice [Kaw]

 

tribe, Wyandotte tribe

waiⁿ-ta (waiń-t͓ă) - Kwapa name for the Wyandot Indians [JOD]

Dhegiha: woⁿ-da (wⁿ-da) - Wyandotte [FL-Osage]

 

trick, deceive

ma-xi-de (maxd) - to deceive [JOD]

cf. ma-xi-wa-de (maxwad) - he deceived them [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke ha kʰe o-di-shto-te o-ba-haⁿ a-taⁿ ma-xi-wa-de tʰaⁿ i-ya-we, haⁿ-ka e-zhiⁿ-ke i-niⁿ-aⁿ-we ke i-ya-we, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-tʰaⁿ i-ya-we (h̨ka ęke h kʰe odtotte obhą att̨ maγwad tʰ̨ iywe, h̨ka ęke etʰ̨ inį̨we k iyw, mat̨ke etʰ̨ iywe) - he skinned Haⁿ-kas son, put on his skin and tricked them, they thought that rabbit was Haⁿ-kas son, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-xe-the (moⁿ-x-the) - to deceive, swindle, hoodwink, delude or defraud [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-xi-the (mąγe) - deceive, trick, lie, swindle, defraud, fool [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-ghi-ye (maⁿghye) - fool someone, deceive, tease, trick [Kaw]

 

tricks, to do tricks

o-shkaⁿ ka-xe (ką kγe) - to do tricks

cf. o-shkaⁿ (ką) - act, deed; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: u-shkoⁿ ga-xe (shkoⁿ gxe) - to make a custom, regulation, law [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-shkoⁿ (ushkⁿ), (shkoⁿ) - to do or work [Omaha/Ponca]; u-shkoⁿ (shkoⁿ) - an act, deed; custom, business [Omaha/Ponca]; u-shkoⁿ (-shkoⁿ) - disposition, temperament; habit; custom [FL-Osage]; o-shkaⁿ (óshkaⁿ) - act, deed, custom [Kaw]

 

trickster, monkey

ho-mi-ta-ta (hmitttta) - monkey, trickster

ho-mi-ta-ta (hmitttta) - monkey [MS]

Dhegiha: miⁿ-da-da (mⁿdada) - to crawl along by degrees, as in getting near ducks, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: i-shti-ni-kʰe (ishtnikʰe) - monkey, a mythical trickster character [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-shtiⁿ-thiⁿ-ke (iⁿshtiⁿthiⁿke) - monkey, trickster [Omaha]; hi u-dse (hi -dse) - monkey, vermin hunter [FL-Osage]; he o-tse (heoce) - monkey, lit., looks for lice [CQ-Osage]

 

trip

hi-pʰe (hipʰ) - fall, to stumble and fall, to trip a-hi-pʰe (ahipʰ) - I

ex: a-hi-pʰe (ahipʰ) - I fell down [JOD]

ex: a-shi a-toⁿ-we taⁿ a-hi-pʰe, maⁿ-da hi a-zhaⁿ, wa-tʰe aⁿ-ka-ze hi kaⁿ hi a-zhaⁿ, e-shoⁿ te paⁿ-ze miⁿ-kʰe (i at̨we tą ahipʰ, mąda h ą, watʰ ąkaze h k̨ hi ą, ̨ tʔe pp̨ze mįkʰe) - when I looked back I fell down, I laid there on my back, my dress flew up on me, so I laid there pretending to be dead [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe (hipʰ) - she fell [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe, i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫ-n̨ wak̨ kd ǫ-n̨ hipʰ, iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe (hipʰ kʰ) - she fell/the reclining object = she lay [JOD]

ex: hi-pʰe kʰe taⁿ hi, i-ya-we (hipʰ kʰ tą h, iywe) - she had fallen when he arrived, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: hi-pshe (h-pshe) - to stumble and fall, to trip [FL-Osage]; hi-pshe (hpe) - stumble and fall [CQ-Osage]; hi-phe (hphe) - fall down [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break a-naⁿ-shoⁿ (an̨ǫ) - I, da-naⁿ-shoⁿ (dan̨ǫ) - you

cf. naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; di-shoⁿ (dį), di-shaⁿ (dią) - pull over and spill (liquid); spill, pull over a vessel; di-shoⁿ-da (diǫd) - pull over and spill (liquid); di-shoⁿ-da-da (dįdad) - pull off balance; di-shoⁿ-shoⁿ-da (diǫǫda) - loosen by working back/forth; di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - dislocated, fallen, fallen off [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-shoⁿ (noⁿ-shⁿ) - to dislocate, to dislocate a joint in the leg or arm [FL-Osage]

 

trot, trotting

ba-ha-ha-ta (bahhatta) - trot

ba-ha-ha-ta (bahhatta) - trotting [JOD]

 

ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ (bahhatta httą) - trotting/good [JOD]

ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ (bahhatta httą) - pace

cf. ba-ha-ha-ta (bahhatta) - trot; ho-taⁿ (httą) - good

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ki-kniⁿ aⁿ-taⁿ ba-ha-ha-ta ho-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ de (̨keknį akknį ̨tą bahhatta httą k̨į d) - horse/she sat on her own/when/trotting/good/so/she went [JOD]

 

trouble, bring trouble on oneself

e-wa-ki-koⁿ ka-xe (wakikʔǫ kγe) - bring trouble on oneself e-a-wa-ki-koⁿ pa-xe (awakikʔǫ ppγe) - I, e-wa-da-ki-koⁿ shka-xe (ewadakikʔǫ kγe) - you

cf. e-maⁿ (mą), e-waⁿ (wą), e-woⁿ (wǫ) - to be cause of trouble, be blameworthy; e-wa-ki-koⁿ (wakkikʔ̨), e-wa-ki-kaⁿ (wakkikʔ̨) - do something for onself; ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

Dhegiha: e-wa-ki-oⁿ (wakoⁿ) - to bring trouble on himself; to cause trouble to happen to himself; to be the only one to be blamed; to get himself into difficulty; to deserve or merit punishment or suffering [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: e-woⁿ (woⁿ) - cause to happen [Omaha]; e-woⁿ-xti (woⁿxti) - cause sin [Omaha]; e-waⁿ (-waⁿ) - to be the cause of trouble to another; to be worthy of blame [JOD-Omaha]; e-woⁿ (-woⁿ) - motive, reason for doing a thing [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ a-ka (-woⁿ a-ka) - to blame; the causer, one who caused the mischief [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ (ewǫ), e-waⁿ (ewą) - he does it, he did it [CQ-Osage]; e-moⁿ (moⁿ) - be to blame, be culpable, be at fault [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-kaⁿ (-aⁿ) - to put trouble on one, to be the cause of trouble, to be blameworthy [JOD-Omaha]; o-kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - to be the cause, to be to blame for [Kaw]

 

trouble, to be cause of trouble

e-maⁿ (mą), e-waⁿ (wą), e-woⁿ (wǫ) - to be cause of trouble, be blameworthy

ex: e-waⁿ (wą) - he is blameworthy [JOD]

ex: hao, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-waⁿ niⁿ (ha, mat̨ke wą n̨) - ho, the rabbit is the guilty one [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-woⁿ (woⁿ) - cause to happen [Omaha]; e-woⁿ-xti (woⁿxti) - cause sin [Omaha]; e-waⁿ (-waⁿ) - to be the cause of trouble to another; to be worthy of blame [JOD-Omaha]; e-woⁿ (-woⁿ) - motive, reason for doing a thing [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ a-ka (-woⁿ a-ka) - to blame; the causer, one who caused the mischief [FL-Osage]; e-woⁿ (ewǫ), e-waⁿ (ewą) - he does it, he did it [CQ-Osage]; e-moⁿ (moⁿ) - be to blame, be culpable, be at fault [Kaw]

 

trouble, to get into trouble

shi-ke o-ki-knaⁿ (ik okkkną) - get into trouble, to get into trouble shi-ke o-a-ki-knaⁿ (ik okkikną) - I, shi-ke o-da-ki-knaⁿ (ik odkkikną) - you

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc.; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set, put

Dhegiha: u-gi-gthaⁿ (u-g-gaⁿ) - to put his book, paper, etc., into his pocket; to put a cv. ob., belonging to himself, into a barrel or cv. box [JOD-Omaha]; u-gi-gthoⁿ (u-g-gthoⁿ) - to put something in a pile [FL-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (ʰkilą) - that which one puts oneself into, clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklaⁿ), o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in, dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-laⁿ (oglaⁿ) - put something in a container; put a sitting object into something [Kaw]

 

trousers, pants

niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants, trousers

niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (n̨tte diį) - pants [MS, OM]

niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ (ntudishi), (ntsudishe) - pants [ASG]

cf. ni-te (ntte), niⁿ-te (n̨tte) - buttocks, rear [MS, OM]; o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle

ex: niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ a-ki-pa-xta-na (n̨tte diį kkippaxtana) - to turn (roll up) the legs of pants

Dhegiha: ni-de u-thi-shi (nde uthishi) - breeches [Omaha]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (nnde) - rump, hams [JOD-Omaha]; ni-dse (n-dse) - haunch; body; the lower part of the back; the hips; rump [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-thi-shiⁿ (uthshiⁿ) - cover, to cover, as with a garment [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shiⁿ (u-th-shiⁿ) - to wrap anything up [FL-Osage]; o-thi-shi (oi) - wrap, cover for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc. [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-shiⁿ (oyshiⁿ) - bundle something up, cover something by surrounding it [Kaw]

 

trout

ho-te ho-sho-ka (hott hoka) - trout

 

truly, indeed

e-de (ed), de (d) - really, indeed, truly, sure enough

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e! di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe te-a-de e-de, i-yi i-ya (įkk̨-e! dixi wadxow nįkʰ tʔed ed, iy iy) - o my grandmother! I have truly killed the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth! it is said he said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de ma-shtiⁿ-ke tʰi e-de i-ke-ya-we niⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke tʰi ed mat̨ke tʰi ed keywe n̨ iy) - the rabbit has come!, the rabbit has come! they (black bears) said to one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e te-a-de e-de (įkk-e tʔede ed) - O grandmother, I have really killed him [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke te-di-de ta e-de i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ (wtteke tʔdid tta ed iy iy mat̨ke nį) - my uncle, you have surely been killed, said the rabbit, they say [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-ba de aⁿ-naⁿ-bnaⁿ miⁿ-kʰe e-de (h̨ba de ąn̨bną mįkʰe ed) - today, I am really tired of it [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe aⁿ-di-xe niⁿ e-de, wi-ti-kaⁿ, i-ke (dotʰe ądxe nį ed, wittik̨, ik) - my grandfather, the man eater is sure enough chasing me, she said to him [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: she o-do-ha-ke de ( odhake d) - thats sure enough the last one [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are surely telling the truth [JOD]

 

trunk, chest

zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box

zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, chest [MS]

zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ǫppi) - wooden box [JOD]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-zhi (o) - put collection into something, plant, fill; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer; pi-ki-zhi (ppkii) - to put away ones own [JOD]; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; o-ki-pi (okppi) - be full, as a container; o-pi hi-hi-ka (opp hihkka) - box, paper or cardboard; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away

ex: xoⁿ-te zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (xǫtt ąppii) - cedar chest [MS]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ kaⁿ-iⁿ kda-i taⁿ ta-taⁿ ho-taⁿ hi zhoⁿ-pi-zhi o-zhi taⁿ ki-ki (kįttą k̨į kd-i tą tttą hott̨ hi ǫppi o tą kikʔ) - so then when they went back (the other girls), he gave his own (his daughter) a wooden box filled with something very good [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood; a tree; trees [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - a tree; wood; fuel [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - tree, log, wood, lumber; stick, pole; woods, forest [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - wood, a tree or log [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-zhi (pzhi) - to put a number of small objects, not his own, in a safe place (not mentioned) [Omaha/Ponca]; pi-gi-zhi (pgizhi) - to put a number of his small objects in a safe place (not mentioning the place) [Omaha/Ponca]; u-pi-zhi (p͓ii) - to lay a col. of small objects in a receptacle [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pi (kipi) - full, brim full [Omaha]; u-gi-pi (u-g-p̣i) - full, will contain no more, replete [FL-Osage]; o-kiu-ʰpiu (okʰp), o-ku-ʰpi (kuʰpi) - full of, have a fullness of, be filled with, be full, be flooded, full amount, houseful [CQ-Osage]; o-gi-pi (ogpi) - be full, filled, full as a box, barrel, kettle, etc., filled as a lodge or room with people, full as with worms, maggots, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zhi (uzh) - to fill with water, grain, or any bulky substance, to fill with any quantity of small objects, to plant or sow grain, seed, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (zhi) - a pocket [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhi (uzhi) - luggage, packet, suitcase, load, gardener, container, contain [Omaha]; u-zhi (zhi) - cabinet, bin, baggage [Omaha]; u-zhi (-zhi) - to plant [FL-Osage]; u-zhi (u-zhi), o-zhi (-zhi) - a hollow receptacle [FL-Osage]; u-zhu (-zhu) - a pocket, a receptacle [FL-Osage]; o-zhu (ou) - put stuff in, plant stuff, pocket, bottle, container, vessel [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (oo) - pour or serve liquids or small solids such as beans, pour for someone, put in, plant or sow, put in, receptacle, container, bottle, cup, bowl, jar, shaker, holder, for pourable dry or liquid substances [CQ-Osage]; o-zhu (zhu) - bottle [Kaw]; o-zhu (ozh) - put or pour something into something, put many small objects in something, fill, plant [Kaw]

 

trunk, tree trunk

zhaⁿ o-taⁿ-ka (̨ ott̨ka) - tree trunk

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

hi (hi) - stalk, trunk of tree [FS]

hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

truth, tells no lie

iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi (įxowi) - truth, to not lie

iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi (įxowi) - tells no lie [JOD]

cf. iⁿ-xo-we (̨xowe) - lie, tell a lie; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ (d įxowi h ną) - this/tells no lie/very/only, always [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd akʰ) - this one tells no lies, this one wants to tell/speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-xu-be (qub) - to have a mysterious mouth, to say just what happens subsequently [Omaha/Ponca]; i-xo-be (-xo-be) - to fib, to tell a falsehood; to perjure ones self [FL-Osage]; i-xo-pe (xope) - lie, fib, untruth, tell untruths, falsehood [CQ-Osage]; i-xo-be (xobe), i-xo-we (xowe) - lie, be untruthful; liar; a lie [Kaw]

 

truth, to tell the truth

miⁿ-kʰe (m̨kʰe) - to tell the truth miⁿ-a-kʰe (mįkʰe) - I, miⁿ-da-kʰe (m̨dakʰe) - you

mi-kʰe (mkʰe) - to tell the truth mi-a-kʰe (mikʰe) - I, mi-da-kʰe (mdakʰe) - you

ex: miⁿ-a-kʰe (m̨kʰe) - I told the truth [JOD]

ex: ho-ho-xo! miⁿ-a-kʰe, ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hhox! m̨kʰe, mat̨ke) - really! I have spoken the truth, Rabbit [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-te a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ett ą) - I think you are telling the truth [JOD]

ex: de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da a-kʰe (d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd akʰ) - this/speaks/tells the truth/very/desires/it is the one [JOD]

ex: de iⁿ-xo-wa-zhi hi naⁿ, de i-ye miⁿ-kʰe hi koⁿ-da a-kʰe (d įxowi h ną, d ye m̨kʰe hi kǫd akʰ) - this (one) tells no lies, this (one) wants to tell/speak the truth, it is the one [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-zhaⁿ-zhi tʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (m̨kʰe ądąi tʰe ąmį) - I do not think that you believe me

ex: miⁿ-kʰe (m̨kʰe) - told the truth [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ! wi-to-shpa miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de, i-yi i-ya (hǫ! wittpa m̨kʰe tʰe ed, iy iy) - yes! my grandson did tell the truth, but . it is said she said (an elliptical expression, it would be in full, miⁿ-kʰe tʰe-de, miⁿ-kʰe a-zhaⁿ-zhi, he did tell the truth, but I did not think that he told the truth.) [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-kʰe (wⁿkʰe) - to tell or speak the truth [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-ke (wiⁿke) - faithful; honest; fair [Omaha]; wiⁿ-kshe (wiⁿ-kshe), wiⁿ-ke (wⁿ-ke) - truth; sincere; genuine; sincerity; sure [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ-kshe (w̨ke) - speak the truth, tell the truth; be true to; true; truth; golly! gosh! [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-khe (míⁿkhe) - to tell the truth [Kaw]

 

try with all ones might

wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong, be strong, with an effort, all ones might a-wa-shkaⁿ (awką) - I, da-wa-shkaⁿ (dawką) - you

wa-shkaⁿ (wak̨) - strong [ASG]

cf. wa-shkaⁿ-hi (wak̨hi), wa-shkoⁿ-hi (wak̨hi) - hard, with great effort; wa-shkoⁿ-hi a-ki-di-taⁿ (wak̨hi kkiditt̨) - to pull hard on; wa-shkaⁿ-hi ka-xe (wak̨hi kγe) - strengthen, make strong; wa-shkaⁿ taⁿ-ka (wak̨ttąka) - powerful, all-powerful

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ a-shi toⁿ-we-ki-ki shoⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde shoⁿ-niⁿ hi-pʰe i-ya-we (kįttą i t̨wekik ǫ-n̨ wak̨ kd ǫ-n̨ hipʰ iywe) - then she looked back at him repeatedly as she tried with all her might to get home, she fell, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-shkaⁿ pʰi maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (wką pʰ mątt kʰett) - I was trying with all my effort to reach there, to the canoe [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ kde (tt̨nį wak̨ kd) - running with all her might, she went home [JOD]

ex: taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ a-kde maⁿ-te kʰe-ti (tt̨nį wką akd mątt kʰett) - running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: e-ta hi ki taⁿ, a-ki-ta taⁿ taⁿ-niⁿ wa-shkaⁿ, a-kde maⁿ-te e-ti (tta h k tą, aktta tą tt̨nį wką, akd mątt ett) - when he reached there, I rose and running with all my might, I started back to the canoe [JOD]

ex: i-e wa-shkaⁿ-hi aⁿ-da-ki-de (e wak̨hi ̨dakide) - make loud talking (talk louder to me) [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-shkaⁿ (wa-ckⁿ) - an effort, attempt; to make an effort or attempt; to persevere; to be active, play a prominent part  [JOD-Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (washkoⁿ) - energy [Omaha]; wa-shkoⁿ (wa-shkⁿ) - strength, might, force, power, to struggle hard, effort, to make an effort [FL-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (waak̨) - try hard, do one's best, make an effort, struggle, strength, might, force, power [CQ-Osage]; wa-shkaⁿ (washkⁿ) - try, do ones best, make an effort [Kaw]

 

try, make effort, decide

di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - to plan, to decide [JOD]

di-knaⁿ (dikn̨), di-kdaⁿ (dikdą) - try, make effort, decide bdi-knaⁿ (bdkną) - I, ti-knaⁿ (ttkną) - you

cf. i-di-kdaⁿ (dikdą), i-di-knaⁿ (dikną) - thoughtfully, deliberately; think, decide, form an opinion, plan; i-di-kdaⁿ tʰaⁿ-he (dikdą tʰ̨he) - be wise; i-di-knaⁿ hi o-tʰiⁿ (idikną hi otʰį) - to hit an object softly or carefully; wa-di-kdaⁿ ska (wadikdą ska) - wise, sensible; wa-di-kdaⁿ toⁿ (wadikdą ttǫ) - be wise, have sense; miⁿ di-kdaⁿ (mį dkdą) - consider marriage to a woman

ex: wa-bdi-knaⁿ (wbdikn̨) - I am planning something [JOD]

ex: da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-ki-ho-shi (datʰ dikn̨ tą k͓iho) - she decided to eat it, he (her man/husband) forbid her (from eating it) [JOD]

ex: ta-bde kaⁿ-a-tʰaⁿ-he si-ka i-ta da-tʰe di-knaⁿ taⁿ i-da-ki-ho-shi (tbde k̨-atʰ̨he skka itt datʰ dikn̨ tą idkiho) - while I was hunting, she decided to eat a chicken egg, which I had forbidden her to do [JOD]

ex: shiⁿ-wa-de di-knaⁿ niⁿ (įwde dikn̨ nį) - he planned/decided to fatten them [JOD]

ex: a-niⁿ kde di-knaⁿ (an̨ kde dikn̨) - he decided/planned to take it home [JOD]

ex: koⁿ-ska ki-kiⁿ di-knaⁿ, aⁿ-ka-de te (k̨ska kikʔ̨ dikn̨, ąkde tt) - quickly decide what you will pack, lets go [JOD]

ex: pi-ki-zhi di-knaⁿ (ppkii dikn̨) - she planned/decided to put it away [JOD]

ex: da-sniⁿ-wa-zhi naⁿ pi-ki-zhi di-knaⁿ (dasn̨wa ną ppkii dikn̨) - they had not devoured it all, she decided to put her scraps away [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te i-oⁿ di-xe di-knaⁿ (mątt į dix dikn̨) - (they) planned to chase/pursue him by using a canoe [JOD]

ex: a-ko-e a-niⁿ kde di-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (koe an̨ kde dikn̨ tʰą) - quickly he decided/planned to take it home [JOD]

ex: a-toⁿ-we-ki-de di-knaⁿ (at̨wekid dkną)- he planned/tried to make me look at him [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-thi-gthoⁿ (thigthoⁿ) - slowly, deliberately, slowly and deliberately [Omaha/Ponca]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (ithigthoⁿ) - thought, idea [Omaha]; i-thi-gthaⁿ (igaⁿ) - decide [JOD-Omaha]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-gthoⁿ (-thi-gthoⁿ) - to think, to consider, to study, to contemplate, in his thoughts; slowly, or at a slow pace [FL-Osage]; i-thi-laⁿ (ilą) - think about; have on ones mind; want, wish [CQ-Osage]; i-yu-laⁿ (yulaⁿ) - proceed carefully (deliberately), decide, form an opinion, judge [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wathigthoⁿ) - brain, mind [Omaha]; wa-thi-gthaⁿ (wagaⁿ) - plan; to rule; one who prophesies [JOD-Omaha]; wa-thi-gthoⁿ (wa-th-gthoⁿ) - intellect; sense; sound judgment; mind [FL-Osage]; wa-thi-gthaⁿ (walą) - think things; think about, think on, ponder, muse about; mind, brain, thought, soul, thinking [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-laⁿ (waylaⁿ) - think about something, plan, judge; a plan, thoughts, ideas; mind [Kaw]

 

try, test, attempt

i-ki-te (kʔitte) - try, test, attempt i-ki-ta-i (kʔita) - they

ex: i-ki-ta-i (kʔita) - they tried it on [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ hi naⁿ, mi-zhi-ka ke i-ki-ta-i ke, i-ya, hoⁿ-pe (kįttą h ną, miik ke kʔita ke, iy, hǫp) - then when he arrived, the girls tried on the shoe [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti mi-zhi-ka za-ni hi i-ki-ta-i taⁿ di-sha-wi (kįttą tti mika zan hi kʔita tą diʔawi) - then, every single one of the girls there tried it and they failed [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-ʰku-tse (i-ḳu-tse), i-ku-tsa (i-ku-tsa), i-ʰku-te (i-ḳu-ta) - try; to risk; to test the taste [FL-Osage]; i-ku-tse (kʔuce) - try, make an effort, do ones best, try ones best, make ones best effort; try to, strive to, risk, test, taste, try on, attempt; class, practice, practice session, workshop; study [CQ-Osage]

 

tuck in

mi-knaⁿ (mkną) - put inside, tuck in, stick in mi-a-knaⁿ (mikną) - I, mi-da-knaⁿ (mdakną) - you

cf. knaⁿ (kną) - set, put; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put sg/si or cloth, paper into, put inside; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - put or set ones own; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; pi-knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkkną) - undertake something

Dhegiha: mi-gthaⁿ (m-gaⁿ) - to put a knife or stick under the belt; to put a knife in its sheath under the belt, to put a lariat, etc., under the belt [JOD-Omaha]; ʰka-xe mi-gthoⁿ (ḳ-xe mi-gthoⁿ) - crow belt, worn by members of the he-th-shka society who have won military honors [FL-Osage]

 

mi-zhi (mi) - put pl/sin under belt, tuck in mi-a-zhi (mii) - I, mi-da-zhi (mdai) - you

cf. a-zhi (i) - put small sin objs onto something that serves as a platform; o-zhi (o) - put cl into something, plant, fill; ni shi-ke o-zhi (ni ke o) - whiskey bottle; o-pi-zhi (ppii) - drawer, box; zhaⁿ-pi-zhi (ąppii) - trunk, box; sto-de-zhi (stodi) - collect small objects in a heap

Dhegiha: mi-zhi (m-ji) - to put a number of small things, not his, in his belt [JOD-Omaha]

 

Tuesday

naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday, lit. two sleeps

naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday [MS]

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline, sleep

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ba naⁿ-ba zhaⁿ xti-e-gaⁿ (ⁿba nⁿba jⁿ-qtigaⁿ) - in about two days (of sleeps) [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ba zhaⁿ (noⁿbá zhaⁿ) - two days [Kaw]

 

tumble bug

iⁿ-kde o-ba-toⁿ-da (įkd obttǫda) - tumble bug, dung roller

cf. iⁿ-kde (įkd) - dung, manure; o-bi-taⁿ-da (obttątt̨da) - roll something repeatedly in something; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over; o-ka-toⁿ-ta (okttǫta) - wheel

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthu-ba-ʰtoⁿ-tha (iⁿgth-ba-ṭoⁿ-tha) - the tumbling or dung beetle [FL-Osage]; i-le o-ba-taⁿ-yaⁿ (il obatⁿyaⁿ) - tumblebug, dung beetle [Kaw]

Dhegiha: iⁿ-gthe (iⁿgth) - dung, feces, manure, excrement [Omaha/Ponca]; iⁿ-gthe (iⁿgthe) - manure [Omaha]; iⁿ-gthe (iⁿ-gth) - dung, excrement [FL-Osage]; iⁿ-le (įl) - excrement, feces, dung, ordure, excretory function, bowels [CQ-Osage]; i-le (il) - dung, manure, excrement [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ba-taⁿ-tha (u-b-t͓aⁿ-a) - to roll over, as a barrel, heavy log, hogshead, etc., by pushing it forward [JOD-Omaha]; u-ba-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-b-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll a log or ny other heavy object [FL-Osage]; o-ba-taⁿ-ya (obátaⁿya) - roll something, roll something over; to roll something, said of the act of the tumblebug and kindred beetles in making balls of manure; to roll an object over by pushing [Kaw]

 

tunic

ta ha o-ki-kdi-xda (ttah okkkdixd) - mans shirt, coat, tunic, made of buckskin

cf. ta ha (ttah) - deerskin; o-ki-kdi-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kda-xda (okkkdaxda) - shirt; o-ki-kdi-o-xda (okkkdixda), o-ki-kdi-o-kda (okkkdikda) - shirt

Dhegiha: ta-xti ha (tqtiha) - deer hide, deer skin [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta ha (ṭa-ha) - deer skin [FL-Osage]; ʰta ha (ʰtaaha) - buckskin, deerskin [CQ-Osage]; ta ha (tah) - deerskin [Kaw]

Dhegiha: o-ʰku-laⁿ (oʰklą), o-ʰki-laⁿ (oʰklą) - clothes, lit., that which one puts oneself into [CQ-Osage]; o-ʰki-o-laⁿ (ʰkiool̨) - put on oneself or dress in (e.g., a shirt or a dress); dress oneself, put on clothes [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-o-xla (ókiloxla), o-ki-laⁿ-xla (ókilaⁿxla) - clothes, coat, shirt, tunic [Kaw]

 

turkey

si-ka taⁿ-ka (sikk tt̨ka) - turkey [MS, AG, OM]

si-ka taⁿ-ka (sikkttąGa) - turkey, large hen turkey [FS]

si-ka taⁿ-ka (sikk tt̨ka) - wild turkey

cf. si-ka (skka) - chicken, probably originally turkey; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka o-haⁿ (sikka tt̨ka oh̨) - boiled turkey [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka zho-hi hi to-kʰe-tʰaⁿ (skka tt̨ka hi h tokʰtʰaⁿ) - there were many turkeys there then [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-xi-ka-zhi wa-xo-ka niⁿ-kʰe (skka tt̨ka mxiki waxkka nįkʰe) - the wild turkey was singing [JOD]

Dhegiha: siu-ʰka ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳa ṭoⁿ-ga) - turkey [FL-Osage]; su-ʰka ʰtaⁿ (sʰkaʰtąą) - turkey, lit., big chicken [CQ-Osage]; si-ka taⁿ-ga (síka táⁿga) - turkey [Kaw]

 

turkey vulture, turkey buzzard

he-ka taⁿ-ka (hȁ́ka taⁿka) - turkey buzzard [ASG]

he-ka taⁿ-ka (hek tt̨ka) - buzzard, Cathartes aura

he-ka taⁿ-ka (hek tt̨ka) - buzzard [MS]

Dhegiha: he-ga (hga) - the Cathartes aura or turkey-buzzard [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ga (hga) - buzzard [Omaha]; he-ga (he-g) - turkey buzzard [FL-Osage]; he-ka (hka) - buzzard [CQ-Osage]; he-ga (héga) - buzzard [Kaw]

 

he-ka (heh-kah) - vulture (vautour) [ GI]

he-ka (hȁ́ka) - turkey buzzard [ASG]

Dhegiha: he-ga (hga) - the Cathartes aura or turkey-buzzard [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ga (hga) - buzzard [Omaha]; he-ga (he-g) - turkey buzzard [FL-Osage]; he-ka (hka) - buzzard [CQ-Osage]; he-ga (héga) - buzzard [Kaw]

 

turkey, wild turkey

si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-zhaⁿ-a-ti (skka tt̨ka mąatti) - wild turkey

cf. si-ka taⁿ-ka (sikk tt̨ka) - turkey; ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; a-ti (atti) - denoting place where, or time when (in the past)

Dhegiha: siu-ʰka ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-ḳa ṭoⁿ-ga) - turkey [FL-Osage]; su-ʰka ʰtaⁿ (sʰkaʰtąą) - turkey, lit., big chicken [CQ-Osage]; si-ka taⁿ-ga (síka táⁿga) - turkey [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ma-zhoⁿ-a-di (mazhⁿadi) - on the land [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ-dsi (moⁿ-zhⁿ-dsi) - on the earth; on the prairies [FL-Osage]

 

si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-xi-ka-zhi (skka tt̨ka mxiki) - wild turkey [JOD]

cf. si-ka taⁿ-ka (sikk tt̨ka) - turkey; ma-xi-ka-zhi (mxiki) - wild [JOD]

ex: si-ka taⁿ-ka ma-xi-ka-zhi wa-xo-ka niⁿ-kʰe (skka tt̨ka mxiki waxkka nįkʰe) - the wild turkey was singing [JOD]

 

turn and tip up as a board

a-kʰaⁿ i-he-de (kʰą ihde) - turn and tip up as a board a-kʰaⁿ i-he-da-de (kʰą ihdade) - you

cf. a-kʰaⁿ (kʰą) - to lean on; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-kʰaⁿ hi-zhoⁿ (kʰą hǫ) - lean on someone and cause him or her to fall; a-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (kʰą itʰde) - set up a movable object so that it leans against something; a-di-kʰaⁿ i-tʰe-de (dikʰą itʰde) - pull over a sg/st/in object; make an upright object lean by pulling it

Dhegiha: a-kʰoⁿ (kʰoⁿ) - leaning against [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰkoⁿ (-ḳoⁿ) - to lean on, to lean on a post, tree, or rock [FL-Osage]; a-kxaⁿ (akxą) - lie down, as to sleep or rest, lie against, lean up against [CQ-Osage]; akhaⁿ (khaⁿ) - lean on something [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ (gaⁿ) - against [Kaw]; a-gaⁿ zhiⁿ-he (gaⁿ zhⁿhe) - to lie against an object [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ihthe) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; i-he-the (ihĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

turn around, circle

ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle a-koiⁿ-xe (koįγe) - I, da-koiⁿ-xe (dkoįγe) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: ga-ku-wiⁿ-xe (gakwiⁿxe) - to make revolve as a wheel by hitting or blowing on; to soar around, as a hawk, buzzard, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-gu-wiⁿ-xe (ga guwiⁿxe), ga-ku-wiⁿ-xe (gakuwiⁿxe) - spin, agitate, whirl [Omaha]; ga-ʰku-wiⁿ-xe (ga-ḳ-wiⁿ-xe) - the soaring of a hawk, the running of a windmill turned by wind [FL-Osage]; ga-ko-mi-ghe (gakmigh) - turn, revolve as a windmill or clock, make an object revolve in a horizontal or perpendicular plane, as a wheel, by hitting, wind to cause an object to revolve by blowing on, as a windmill [Kaw]

 

turn aside, knock aside

ka-ha-ta de-de (kahtta dde) - knock aside, turn aside a-ha-ta de-a-de (hatta dade) - I, da-ha-ta de-da-de (dhatta dedade) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go; ba-ha-ta (bahatt) - pick up with pointed object; ba-ha-ta de-de (bahtta dde) - brush aside; bi-ha-ta de-de (bihtta dde) - lever, weight, press on end; di-ha-ta (dhatt) - lift something; di-ha-ta de-de (dihtta dde) - lift, pull up suddenly; naⁿ-ha-ta de-de (nąhtta dde) - lift with the foot; po-ha-ta de-de (phatta dde) - poke something in order to lift it

 

turn back and forth

o-di-wa-sha-ke (odwaʔke) - turn back and forth o-bdi-wa-sha-ke (obdwaʔke) - I, o-ti-wa-sha-ke (ottwaʔke) - you

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; wa-sha-ke (wʔak) - large, be large

 

turn by hitting, knock around

ka-bni-da (kabnda) - knock around, turn by hitting a-bni-da (bnida) - I, da-bni-da (dbnida) - you, oⁿ-ka-bni-da-we (ǫkbnidawe) - we

Dhegiha: ga-bthiⁿ-tha (ga-bⁿ-a) - to make a large log roll into place by striking it, also said of a large log, rolling a little of its own accord, as when it is put into place in building a house [JOD-Omaha]

 

turn crank as on a handmill

di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill bdi-taⁿ-ha (bdttąha) - I, ti-taⁿ-ha (ttttąha) - you

cf. wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal, from di-taⁿ-ha (dittąha) to crank; a-ki-di-taⁿ (kkiditt̨) - pull, as a rope; di-taⁿ-ni (ditt̨ni) - spin someone around, whirl; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over

Dhegiha: yu-taⁿ-haⁿ (yutáⁿhaⁿ) - pull around, make turn by pulling; to pull around, to make revolve by pulling, as horses do the gear of a threshing machine to which several horses are attached; in this kind, the animals walk around in a circle [Kaw]

 

turn down the waist of ones skirt

wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki (watʰ kddaki) - turn down the waist of ones skirt

ex: wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki (watʰ kddaki) - skirt/she turned down the waist of her [JOD]

ex: a-shi-ti he-saⁿ o-ki-te wa-tʰe kdi-da-ki aⁿ-taⁿ he-saⁿ te-wa-de kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (itti hes̨ oktt watʰ kddaki ̨tą hes̨ tʔwade k̨-nįkʰ) - so she sat awhile outside, she turned down the waist of her skirt, looking for lice on herself and killing them [JOD]

 

turn down, fold down

a-di-be-xiⁿ (dibex̨) - fold down

cf. di-be-xiⁿ (dbexʔ̨) - bend down, pull down

ex: hoⁿ-biⁿ-te-a-ha a-di-be-xiⁿ (hǫb̨tteha dibex̨) - turn down the flaps of moccasins

Dhegiha: thi-be-xiⁿ (thibqiⁿ) - to fold back from, as a sleeve or pants, with the hand [Omaha/Ponca]; be-xiⁿ (bqiⁿ) - pulled back as a sleeve; made bare, uncovered [Omaha/Ponca]

 

turn off the light

a-ta-koⁿ di-ta-zhi (ttakkǫ diti) - turn off the light

cf. a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką) - lamp, lantern, candle; di-ta-zhi (diti) - extinguish a fire, put out a fire, turn off a light; di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, by fire; zhi (i) - negative, not, negation

Dhegiha: thi-na-zhi (thinzhi) - to put out a fire by scattering the coals or wood [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-na-zhi (thinzhi) - light turned off [Omaha]; thi-da-zhi (thi-d-zhi) - to put out a light; to put out a fire with the hands [FL-Osage]; thu-ta-zhi (uutai), thi-ta-zhi (iitai) - turn off, switch off, extinguish [CQ-Osage]; yu-da-zhi (yudázhi) - extinguish a fire by scattering it [Kaw]

Dhegiha: na-zhi (nzhi) - to go out, as a fire [Omaha/Ponca]; da-zhi (d-zhi) - to extinguish a fire [FL-Osage]; ta-zhi (tai) - go out, not burn, become extinguished [CQ-Osage]; da-zhi (dázhi) - be extinguished, to have gone out, as a fire [Kaw]

 

turn on the light

a-ta-koⁿ i-ta ka-xa (ttakkǫ ita kaγ) - let the light burn! (turn on the lantern, make it burn!) [MS]

cf. a-ta-kaⁿ (ttakką), a-ta-koⁿ (ttakkǫ), ha-ta-kaⁿ (hattką) - lamp, lantern, candle; ka-xa (kaγ) - command form of make, do, cause

Dhegiha: na-kaⁿ ga-xa a (nkaⁿ gxa-ă) - make a light [JOD-Omaha]; da-ʰkoⁿ ga-xa (d-ḳoⁿ-ga-xa) - to make a bright light, to illuminate [FL-Osage]; a-ta-ʰkaiⁿ ka-xa (taʰkį kaγa) - turn on the light [CQ-Osage]

 

turn oneself around

ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around a-ki-kdi-koiⁿ-xe (akkkdikkoįγe) - I, da-ki-kdi-koiⁿ-xe (dakkkdikkoįγe) - you

cf. ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: ki-gthi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (kigthkuwiⁿxe) - to turn himself around on his heels (and not in the sense of retracing his steps) [Omaha/Ponca]; ki-gthi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (kigthi kuwiⁿxe) - turn around [Omaha]; ʰki-li-ʰkoⁿiⁿ-xe (ʰkiliʰkǫįγe) - turn oneself around [CQ-Osage]

 

turn over, roll up

a-ki-pa-xta-na (kkippxtana) - roll up, turn over a-a-ki-pa-xta-na (akkippxtana) - I, a-da-ki-pa-xta-na (dakkippxtana) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-xta-na-we (̨kakkippxtanawe) - we

cf. a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together; o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

ex: a a-ki-pa-xta-na ( kkippaxtana) - to roll up a sleeve

ex: niⁿ-te o-di-shiⁿ a-ki-pa-xta-na (n̨tte diį kkippaxtana) - to turn (roll up) the legs of pants

Dhegiha: a-ki-pa (akipa) - meet [Omaha]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (-ḳi-p̣a) - to meet another [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-ʰpa (ʰkiʰpa) - encounter, meet [CQ-Osage]; a-ki-pa (kipa) - meet [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ba-xtha (ḳ-ba-xtha) - meet face to face [FL-Osage]; u-ʰki-ba-xtha (u-ḳ-ba-xtha) - to meet face to face [FL-Osage]; o-ki-ki-ba-xla (okkibaxla) - meet face to face, coming from opposite directions: said of more than one pair [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pa-toⁿ (ukipatoⁿ) - roll [Omaha]; u-ki-pa-taⁿ (ukpatⁿ) - rolled himself over [JOD-Omaha]; u-ʰki-ʰpa-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-ḳi-pa-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll over and over [FL-Osage]

 

turn round and round

ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round a-ko-iⁿ-xa-xa (akkįγγa) - I, da-ko-iⁿ-xa-xa (dakkįγγa) - you

cf. ka-ko-iⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something; po-ko-iⁿ-xa-xa (pkoįγγa) - knock spinning, punch and spin;

Dhegiha: ku-wiⁿ-xa-xa (k͓-wiⁿ-x-xa) - freq. of k͓uwiⁿxe [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ʰko-iⁿ-xe (ʰkįγe) - turn, turn around [CQ-Osage]; wiⁿ-xe (wįγe), i-xe (̨γe) - turn, spin, whirl, around [CQ-Osage]

 

turn something long

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-a-de (bdkkwįγe ihade) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-da-de (ttkkwįγe ihdade) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hide) - spin someone off balance; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi kuwiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha]; thi-ki-wiⁿ-xe (i-k͓-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn round with the hands, as a grindstone; to pull or turn a blanket completely around [JOD-Omaha]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (ihthe) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; i-he-the (ihĕ) - laid down [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

turn something with the foot

naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something a-naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (an̨kkowįγe) - I, da-naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dan̨kkowįγe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰko-wiⁿ-xe (nⁿ-ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - to cause an object to turn by touching it with the foot [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ko-mi-ghe (naⁿkómighe) - treadle; cause to spin or revolve by treading, kicking [Kaw]

 

turn something, pull around

o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around o-bdi-taⁿ-da (obdttąda) - I, o-ti-taⁿ-da (ottttąda) - you

cf. o-di (od) - action by pulling; zhaⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (ą ditt̨da) - wagon, cart; zhoⁿ o-di-taⁿ-da (jon-udit-tontah) - cart (char[r]ette) [GI]; o-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (obttątt̨da) - roll something repeatedly in something; iⁿ-kde o-ba-toⁿ-da (įkd obttǫda) - tumble bug, dung roller; o-di-taⁿ-taⁿ-da (odttątt̨da) - roll something over and over; o-ka-toⁿ-ta (okttǫta) - wheel; pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da ti (pptte ̨ditt̨da tt) - train, lit. fire wagon house; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da zhi-ka (̨ditt̨da ik) - small wagon [JOD]; zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (̨ dit ̨da sott) - train, wagon go fast [MS]; pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (ptte ̨ ditąd sott) - railroad engine [JOD]; pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (pptte ̨ditt̨da) - locomotive, lit. fire wagon; pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da o-zhoⁿ-ke (pptte ̨ditt̨da oǫke) - railway lit. fire wagon road

Dhegiha: u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling: a wagon, buggy; a carriage; anything that is controlled [FL-Osage]; o-thi-ʰtaⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon, describes a rolling motion [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya), (yutaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (thi-ṭⁿ-tha) - to roll [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-tha (ṭoⁿ-tha) - rolling, to roll or make run [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-tha (ʰt̨ąa) - roll, rolling [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ga-toⁿ-toⁿ-tha (uga toⁿtoⁿtha) - tumble [Omaha]; o-ga-ʰtoⁿ-tha (o-ga-ṭoⁿ-tha) - sent rolling upon the ground [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ba-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-b-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll, as a heavy object [FL-Osage]; o-ba-taⁿ-ya (obtaⁿya) - roll something, roll something over, to roll something, to roll an object over by pushing, said of the act of the tumblebug and kindred beetles in making balls of manure [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-bi-taⁿ-taⁿ-tha (u-b-t͓aⁿ-t͓ⁿ-a) - to bear or lean against a heavy log, etc., making it roll over and over [Omaha/Ponca]; bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - rolling [FL-Osage]; we-bi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (w-bi-ṭoⁿ-tha) - a rolling pin [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-ʰki-pa-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-ḳi-pa-ṭoⁿ-tha) - to roll over and over [FL-Osage]; u-ki-pa-taⁿ (ukpatⁿ) - rolled himself over [JOD-Omaha]; be-taⁿ-taⁿ (betⁿtaⁿ) - rolled up several times [JOD-Omaha]; bu-ʰtoⁿ-tha (bu-ṭⁿ-tha) - to shoot and send rolling [FL-Osage]

 

turn, make revolve, push around

ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around pa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ppkkowįγe) - I, shpa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (pkkowįγe) - you

cf. ba (ba) - by pushing; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bakkwįγγa) - push round and round; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (bikkwįγγa) - push or blow something in circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ka-koiⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (kkwįγγa) - turn round and round; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

Dhegiha: ba-ʰku-wiⁿ-xe (ba-ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn by pushing [FL-Osage]; ba-ko-mi-ghe (bakmighe) - turn, spin, cause to revolve in a horizontal or vertical plane by pushing [Kaw]

 

turn, rotate, pull out of line

di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line bdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bdkkowįγe) - I, ti-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ttkkowįγe) - you

cf. di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe hi-de (dikkwįγe hde) - spin someone off balance; di-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (dikkwįγγa) - to cause something to wobble; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle; ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around; naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something

Dhegiha: thi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (thi kuwiⁿxe) - turn [Omaha]; thi-ki-wiⁿ-xe (i-k͓-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn round with the hands, as a grindstone; to pull or turn a blanket completely around [JOD-Omaha]; thi-koiⁿ-xe (iiʰkįɣe) - turn someone or something around [CQ-Osage]; yu-ko-miⁿ-ghe (yukmiⁿghe) - turn something around and around with the hands, to crank [Kaw]

 

turned into, changed into

o-do-hi (odhi) - changed into, turned into [JOD]

ex: o-do-hi (odhi) - was changed into, turned into [JOD]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe (wsʔa odhi kʰe) - she changed into a serpent [JOD]

ex: we-sa o-do-hi kʰe i-ba-haⁿ (wsʔa odhi kʰe bahą) - he knew that she was changed into a serpent [JOD]

ex: e-hoⁿ kʰe we-sa o-do-hi kʰe taⁿ-ha naⁿ-pe xa-ke niⁿ-kʰe (eh̨ kʰe wesʔa odhi kʰe t̨ha n̨ppe γak nįkʰ) - because her mother had been changed into a serpent, she sat crying in fear [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ zho bdo-ka hi we-sa o-do-hi i-ya-we, we-sa-xti kde-zhe pe-xe ttaⁿ e-koⁿ o-do-hi i-ya-we (kįttą o bdka hi wsʔa odhi iywe, wsʔaxti kde ppγe ttą ek̨ odhi iywe) - then her entire flesh/body turned into a snake, they say, turned into a rattlesnake (spotted real snake) with a rattle, like that, they say [JOD]

ex: wa-xo wi-ta we-sa o-do-hi naⁿ ni-ti de (waxʔ wtta wsʔa odhi ną ntti d) - when my wife was turned into a serpent she went into the water [JOD]

ex: wa-hi-ka zhi-ka ta-sha-knaⁿ o-do-hi ka-xe (wahkka ka takn̨ odhi kxe) - he made her change into into a small pin [JOD]

ex: o-do-hi-ki-de (odhikkid) - he caused her to change into [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka wa-xo o-do-hi-ki-de (nkkaka waxʔ odhikkid) - he made (caused her) to change into a female human being [JOD]

 

turned out, toes turned out

si o-bda-koⁿ (si bdakʔǫ) - splayfooted, toes turned out si o-a-bda-koⁿ (si abdakʔǫ) - I, si o-da-bda-koⁿ (si dabdakʔǫ) - you

cf. si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: si btha-ʰka (i btha-ḳa) - web-footed [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: btha (btha) - to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha-ʰka (bth-ḳa) - flat board [FL-Osage]; bra-ka (brkʔa) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ka (blka) - flat on the surface, as boards [Kaw]

 

turned upside down

ki-kda-shoⁿ (kkikdǫ), ki-kda-shaⁿ (kkikdą) - turned upside down

cf. di-ki-kda-shoⁿ (dikkkdaǫ) - turn upside down, pull over; ba-shoⁿ (bą) - spill, push over and spill; di-shoⁿ (dį), di-shaⁿ (dią) - pull over and spill; naⁿ-shoⁿ (ną̨) - dislocate, trip and break

ex: ki-kda-shaⁿ zhaⁿ (kkikdą ̨) - lie on ones stomach

Dhegiha: a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (kigthshoⁿ) - bottom-upward [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: bi-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (bikigthashoⁿ) - to turn an object bottom upwards by sitting on it, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; bu-ku-la-shaⁿ (buklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, overturn by pressure; to turn an object upside down by pushing with the hands alone, with nothing in them, by weight or presssure [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba-ḳ-gtha-shoⁿ) - to push upside down [FL-Osage]; ba-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (ba--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - to turn an object upside down by pushing [FL-Osage]; ba-ku-la-shaⁿ (baklashaⁿ) - turn upside down, push over [Kaw]

Dhegiha: mu-a-kʰi-gtha-shoⁿ (makʰgthashoⁿ) - to knock bottom-upwards by shooting or by rushing against, as a flood does; bo-ku-la-shaⁿ (bkulashaⁿ) - knock upside down by shooting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (gakigthshoⁿ) - to knock or blow bottom-upward [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ ga--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - blown over, blown over by the wind [FL-Osage]; ga-ku-la-shaⁿ (gaklashaⁿ) - knock upside down; turn somersaults [Kaw]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-a-ʰki-gtha-shoⁿ (noⁿ--ḳi-gtha-shoⁿ) - kick over, as to upset; upset with the foot [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ku-la-shaⁿ (naⁿklashaⁿ) - kick over, to upset [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thikigthshoⁿ) - to turn an object upside down by pulling [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-a-ki-gtha-shoⁿ (thi akigthashoⁿ) - turn over [Omaha]; yu-ku-la-shaⁿ (yuklashaⁿ) - roll over, turn upside down; to turn an object such as a boat bottom upward by pulling [Kaw]

 

turnip

to-kde de (tokdede) - turnip

to-kde de (tah-kah-dah-the) - turnips (ravets) [GI]

cf. to (to) - potato; to-shoⁿ-shoⁿ (tǫǫ) - Irish potato, round potato; to-ska (toska) - potato, white potato; to ski-de (to skde) - sweet potato; to ste-te (tosttte) - sweet potato, long potato; to taⁿ-ka (tuk-tonkah) - apple of the earth, large potato (pomme de terre) [GI]

Dhegiha: nu-gthe (ngthe) - turnips [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-gthe (ngthe) - turnips [Omaha]; do-gthe (d-gthe) - Psoralea esculenta Pursh, commonly called pomme blanche by the whites [FL-Osage]; do-le (dle) - turnip, Indian turnip, carrot [Kaw]

Dhegiha: do-gthe-ʰtoⁿ-a (d-gthe ṭoⁿ-a) - turnip, big pomme blanche [FL-Osage]; to-le-ʰtaⁿ (toleʰtąą) - turnip [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: nu (nu) - potato, including both the European potato and native potato [Omaha/Ponca]; nu (nu) - potato [Omaha]; nu (nu) - potato, potatoes; this includes the potato known to the white man, and also the nu u-ke-thiⁿ (n ukiⁿ) or native potato, an esculent root [JOD-Omaha]; do (do) - potato, before the Irish potato was introduced by traders, the Osage used a wild potato which tastes like sweet potato, when the Irish potato became known to the Osage they applied to it the name do [FL-Osage]; to (to) - tuber [CQ-Osage]; do (do) - potato, Indian potato, the Kansa dig these in the lowlands near the Arkansas River, about an inch thick and 2 inches long originally; white, and tasted like potatoes [Kaw]

 

turtle

ke (kke) - turtle

ke (kke) - turtle [MS, MR]

kʰe (k'e˙) - turtle [FS]

ke (k) - turtle [ASG]

Dhegiha: ke (ke) - a black turtle, with a white breast, the Ponkas made shields out of the shells [Omaha/Ponca]; ke (ke) - turtle [Omaha]; ke (ḳ) - turtle; tortoise; terrapin [FL-Osage]; ʰke (ʰke) - turtle, tortoise, terrapin [CQ-Osage]; ke ((ke) - turtle [Kaw]

 

turtle dove

di-ta pa-ta-ho (ditt ppattho) - turtle dove [MS]

di-ta pa-ta-ho (ditt ppattho) - dove, species lives in the forest

cf. di-ta (dtta) - dove; di-ta wa-ta-kde (ditt wattkde) - pigeon

Dhegiha: thi-tʰa (thtʰa) - pigeon, dove [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ta (thta) - pigeon, dove [Omaha]; thi-ta (-ta) - generic; birds of the dove and pigeon genus [JOD-Omaha]; thi-ʰta (thi-ṭa) - pigeon [FL-Osage]; yu-ta (yta) - pigeon, dove [Kaw]

 

Turtle gens (clan)

ke ni-ka-shi-ka (kk nkkaka) - the Turtle gens (clan), obtained from Alphonsus Valliere [JOD]

ke ni-ka-shi-ka (kk nkkaka) - Turtle people, obtained from Mrs. Stafford (five gentes not on the Haka side) [JOD]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; ni-ka-shi-ka (nkkaka) - people

 

turtle or peach stone dice

koⁿ-si-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sǐ kŭⁿ) - dice (turtle), kia tuⁿka, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]

koⁿ-se-koⁿ (gŭⁿ sē gŭⁿ) - peach stone dice, from Mrs. P. Claber [MH]

cf. i-koⁿ (kǫ), i-kaⁿ (ką) - gamble, bet; i-ka-zo-zo i-koⁿ (kazzo kǫ) - cards, playing cards

Dhegiha: koⁿ-su (kʔ̨su), koⁿ-se (kʔ̨se) - dice, Osage dice [CQ-Osage]; koⁿ-su-koⁿ (kʔ̨sukʔ̨) - play dice, Osage dice game [CQ-Osage]; ko-se koⁿ (kse kⁿ) - shoot dice [Kaw]; ko-su i-koⁿ (ksu ikⁿ) - play a gaime with six brass nail-heads [Kaw]; ko-su i-koⁿ (kⁿsu ikⁿ) - shoot dice, originally with six brass nails [Kaw]; ko-su (ksu) - brass nails, studs, used as dice [Kaw]; ko-se (kse), ko-su (ksu) - brass nails, such as are put on womens knife-sheaths, something that they made, little round things out of bone (studded with brass nails) and played games with them: ko-se (kse), those [with] little spots - dice [Kaw]

 

turtle shell

ke ha (kkh) - turtle shell

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

ex: ke-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

ex: ke-ha a-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ iⁿ-ke (kkeh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

Dhegiha: ke ha (ke h) - turtle shell [Omaha/Ponca]; ke ha (ke h) - tortoise shell [Omaha]

 

turtle shells, stomp dance turtle shells

ke-ha a-na-xa-da (kkeh anaxda) - shell shaker, stomp dance shells [MS]

cf. ke-ha (kkh) - turtle shell

ex: ke-ha a-na-xa-da ho-taⁿ aⁿ-ka-niⁿ iⁿ-ke (kkeh anaɣda httą ąkan̨ įk) - we have some good shell shakers [MS]

Dhegiha: ke ha (ke h) - turtle shell [Omaha/Ponca]; ke ha (ke h) - tortoise shell [Omaha]

 

turtle with spotted breast, water turtle

ke moiⁿ-ke kde-zhe (kk mǫke kde) - turtle with spotted breast, water turtle

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿ-iⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), mo-iⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, breast; kde-zhe (kde) - spotted, speckled

Dhegiha: ke gthe-zhe (ke gthezhe) - speckled turtle; refers to a homosexual [Omaha]

 

turtle with white breast

ke mo-iⁿ-ke ska (kk mǫke ska) - turtle with white breast, water turtle

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; maⁿ-ke (m̨ke), maⁿ-iⁿ-ke (mą̨ke), mo-iⁿ-ke (mǫke) - chest, breast; ska (ska) - white

 

turtle, big water turtle

ke taⁿ-ka (kke tt̨ka) - turtle, big water turtle

ke taⁿ-ka (kke tt̨ka) - big turtle [MS]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: ke taⁿ-ga (ktaga) - big turtle [JOD-Omaha]; ke toⁿ-ga (ktoⁿga) - snapping turtle [Omaha]; ʰke ʰtoⁿ-ga (ḳ-ṭoⁿ-ga) - snapping turtle [FL-Osage]; ke taⁿ-ga (k tⁿga) - big turtle; water turtle [Kaw]

 

turtle, Little or Young Turtle

ke zhi-ka (kke ka) - Little Turtle; Young Turtle, masculine name of the Kwapa ke ni-ka-shi-ka (kk nkkaka) or Turtle gens [JOD]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; zhi-ka (ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: ke zhiⁿ-ga (ke zhⁿga) - Little Turtle, male name [Omaha/Ponca]; ke zhiⁿ-ga (ke zhⁿga) - Young Turtle, male name [Kaw]

 

turtle, soft shelled water turtle

ke zhoⁿ-te (kke z̨tte) - soft shelled water turtle

cf. ke (kke) - turtle

 

turtle, striped land turtle

ke kde-ze (kk kdze) - striped land turtle

ke kde-ze (kk kdze) - turtle, terrapin [MS]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; kde-ze (kdez) - striped

Dhegiha: ke gthe-ze (kgthee) - tortoise, striped turtle [Omaha]; ʰke gthe-ze (ḳe-gth-e) - box turtle, striped turtle [FL-Osage]; ke le-ze (k lze) - striped turtle, a land turtle, the male of which has red eyes [Kaw]

 

turtle, tiny species of water tortoise

ke zhaⁿ-xa (kke ąxa) - turtle, tiny species of water tortoise; Quapaws will not allow anyone to lift it by the tail, lest there be a flood

ke zhaⁿ-xe (kke ąx) - masculine name [JOD]

 

turtle, Turtle Claw

ke sha-ke (kke ak) - female name [JOD]

cf. ke (kke) - turtle; sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof

Dhegiha: sha-ge (shage) - hoof, talon, claws, fingernails [Omaha]; sha-ge (sh-ge) - hands, paws, claws, talons [FL-Osage]; sha-ke (ake) - hand, claw, handprint, footprint, tracks, hands of the body that are touched by the attendees when passing by it at a funeral, finger [CQ-Osage]; sha-ge (shge) - claws, finger [Kaw]

 

twelve

naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (nąp aknį) - twelve

naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (nąp aknį) - twelve [MS]

naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (nuⁿbgĕne) - twelve [ASG]

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

Dhegiha: a-gthiⁿ thoⁿ-pa (a-gthiⁿ thoⁿ-ba) - twelve; a dozen [FL-Osage]; a-liⁿ thoⁿ-pa (lįį ǫǫp) - twelve, twelfth (shortened form) [CQ-Osage]; a-li noⁿ-ba (àlinoⁿbá) - twelve [Kaw]

 

kde-bnaⁿ noⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (gĕdēhbŏnāh nonnepah-agheni) - 12 [GI]

kde-bnaⁿ noⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (gdȁbne nuⁿbgĕne) - twelve [ASG]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

Dhegiha: le-braⁿ a-liⁿ thoⁿ-pa (lbrą lįį ǫǫp) - twelve, twelfth (full form) [CQ-Osage]

 

kde-bnaⁿ-taⁿ noⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ (kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨) - twelve (long form), 10 when 2 sitting on

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have; taⁿ (tą) - when; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

ex: mi-aⁿ-ba mi-xti-naⁿ ma-ze-ska kde-bnaⁿ taⁿ naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-da (mįba mxtiną mazska kdbnątt̨ nąp akn̨ ąn̨kid) - he paid me twelve dollars a month

 

twelve and a half cents, bit

de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali money, French escalin shilling

ex: de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime [MS, OM]

ex: de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp), de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter, two bits

ex: de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, fifty cents, four bits

ex: de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents [FR, OM]

 

twentieth

i-kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-pa (kdebdąn̨pa) - twentieth

cf. kde-bna noⁿ-ba (kdbnan̨ba), kde-bdaⁿ noⁿ-ba (kdebdąnǫba) - twenty; kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

 

twenty

kde-bna noⁿ-ba (kdbnan̨ba), kde-bdaⁿ noⁿ-ba (kdebdąnǫba) - twenty

kde-bna noⁿ-ba (kdbnan̨ba), kde-bdaⁿ noⁿ-ba (kdebdąnǫba) - twenty [MS]

kde-bna noⁿ-pa (gĕdēhbŏnāh-nonnepah) - 20 [GI]

kde-bna noⁿ-ba (gdȁbna noⁿb) - twenty [ASG]

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: gthe-ba noⁿ-ba (gthba nⁿba) - twenty [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-bthoⁿ thoⁿ-ba (gth-bthoⁿ thoⁿ-ba) - twenty, two tens [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ thoⁿ-pa (lbrą ǫǫp) - twenty, twentieth [CQ-Osage]; le-blaⁿ noⁿ-ba (léblaⁿ noⁿbá) - twenty [Kaw]

 

twenty each, by twenties, twenty apiece

kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - by twenties, 20 apiece

cf. kde-bna noⁿ-ba (kdbnan̨ba), kde-bdaⁿ noⁿ-ba (kdebdąnǫba) - twenty; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-thoⁿ (thⁿthoⁿ) - distributive term [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿthoⁿthⁿ) - by ones; one at a time; one here and there; one to each [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-the (ną) - a certain number or amount of time, a certain number or amount per person [CQ-Osage]; yaⁿ-ye (-yáⁿye) - distributive suffix for numerals, apiece; now and then [Kaw]

 

twenty-five cents

de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp) - quarter, two bits

de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter [OM]

de-ska-da noⁿ-ba (dskada nǫb) - quarter, twenty-five cents [LQ]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali money, Fr. escalin shilling; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents; de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, four bits, fifty cents [LQ]; de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

 

twenty-one

kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-pa miⁿ-xti a-kniⁿ (kdbdą n̨pa m̨xti aknį) - twenty-one

cf. kde-bnaⁿ (kdbną), kde-bdaⁿ (kdebdą) - ten; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; miⁿ-xti (m̨xti) - one; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on

Dhegiha: gthe-ba naⁿ-ba ki e-di wiⁿ (gthe-ba-naⁿ-ba ki ĕdi wiⁿ), gthe-ba naⁿ-ba ke-di wiⁿ (gthe-ba-naⁿ-ba kĕdi wiⁿ) - 21 [JOD-Omaha]; le-braⁿ thoⁿ-pa a-liⁿ wiⁿ-xtsi (lbrą ǫǫp lįį w̨xci), le-bra thoⁿ-pa e-tsi wiⁿ-xtsi (lbra ̨ǫp ci w̨xci) - twenty-one, tweny-first [CQ-Osage]; le-blaⁿ noⁿ-ba a-li miⁿ-xtsi (léblaⁿ noⁿbá àli míⁿxci) - twenty-one [Kaw]

 

twilight

hoⁿ-sa-we (h̨saw) - twilight

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; sa (sa) - black; sa-we (swe) - black (plural) [ASG]; haⁿ-naⁿ-pa-ze (h̨nąppze) - darkness, evening

Dhegiha: haⁿ-sha-sha-be (haⁿsháshabe) - dusk [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [Omaha/Ponca]; hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [Omaha]; haⁿ (haⁿ) - night [JOD-Omaha]; hoⁿ (hoⁿ) - night [FL-Osage]; haⁿ (h̨ą) - night, nighttime, during the night, at night, nocturnal [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ (haⁿ) - night [Kaw]

 

twins

naⁿ-pa-ta (nąptta) - twins

naⁿ-pa-ta (nąptta) - Twin, female name, named Twin because she was one of twins [JOD]

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; i-ta-de (ttade) - bear or give birth to a child; naⁿ-pa-ta i-ta-de (nąptta ittde) - to have or bear twins

Dhegiha: naⁿ-bi-da-the (naⁿbdae) - two born [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ba i-da (noⁿba ida) - twin [Omaha]; noⁿ-ba-da (noⁿ-b-da), thoⁿ-ba-da (thoⁿ-b-da) - twins, two born [FL-Osage]; thoⁿ-pa-taⁿ (ǫǫptą) - twin, twins [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-da (da) - to be born; i-da (da) - human birth; be born [Omaha]; i-ʰta (i-ṭa), i-da (-da) - born [FL-Osage]

 

twins, to have or bear twins

naⁿ-pa-ta i-ta-de (nąptta ittde) - to have or bear twins

cf. naⁿ-pa-ta (nąptta) - twins; i-ta-de (ttade) - bear or give birth to a child

Dhegiha: i-da-the (dathe) - give birth to [Omaha/Ponca]; i-da-the (-da-the) - to bear a child, to give birth to an offspring [FL-Osage]; i-ta-the (iite) - give birth to [CQ-Osage]; i-da-ye (daye) - bear a child, have a baby [Kaw]

 

twist off the head

di-ba-xa (dibxa) - to twist off the head [JOD]

di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling bdi-ba-xe (bdbaxe) - I, ti-ba-xe (ttbaxe) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: bdi-ba-xa (bdbax) - I twist off its head [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ-xti bdi-ba-xa taⁿ a-wa-ki aⁿ-maⁿ (wąka m̨xti bdbax tą awkʔi ąm̨) - I usually give them just one bird, I twist its head off [JOD]

ex: di-ba-xa (dibxa) - he twisted off its head [JOD]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka miⁿ-xti di-ba-xa naⁿ wa-ki naⁿ (wąka m̨xti dibxa ną wakʔ ną) - he gave them just one bird, he twisted its head off [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ miⁿ di-ze naⁿ ta-i-ta o-naⁿ a-taⁿ di-ba-xe naⁿ o-zhi-ha o-knaⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kįttą mį diz ną ttitta oną attą dibxe ną iha okną k̨-nįkʰ) - then he grabbed one, held it by the neck and broke it, then put it in a bag [JOD]

Dhegiha: thi-ba-xe (thi-b-xe) - to break a string in half; to snap [FL-Osage]; yu-ba-ghe (yubghe) - break or snap a cord by pulling with the hands [Kaw]

 

twist or roll with the palms

bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms pi-be-bni (ppbebni) - I, shpi-be-bni (pbebni) - you

cf. bi (bi) - by pressing, rubbing; be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion

Dhegiha: bi-be-bthiⁿ (bibbiⁿ) - to roll up a napkin, etc., large: to twist a cord large on the knee or between the hands [JOD-Omaha]; bubbliⁿ (bubbliⁿ) - twist until coarse by rubbing or rolling it between hand and knee [Kaw]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

twist with the hands

di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands bdi-be-bniⁿ (bdbebnį) - I, ti-be-bniⁿ (ttbebnį) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

ex: a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-be-bthiⁿ (thibbthiⁿ) - to twist in the hands; to twist, as yarn, with a wheel; to make warp [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]; yu-be-bliⁿ (yubbliⁿ) - twist something coarse with the hands, as a cord or rope [Kaw]

 

twisted round and round

be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round

cf. be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms candy; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, twisted tobacco; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

twisted tobacco, cigar

ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco

cf. ta-ni (tan), ta-niⁿ (tan̨) - tobacco; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands

Dhegiha: naⁿ-nu be-bliⁿ (naⁿn bbliⁿ) - cigar, twisted tobacco, a reference to how cigars are made [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-ni (nin) - tobacco [JOD-Omaha]; ni-ni (nini) - tobacco; cigarette; cigar [Omaha]; noⁿ-ni-hi (noⁿ-n-hi) - tobacco [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-nu-hu (nąnhu) - tobacco; naⁿ-nu (naⁿnú), noⁿ-nu (noⁿnú), naⁿ-ni (naⁿní), na-nu (nanú) - tobacco [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-be-bthiⁿ (thibbthiⁿ) - to twist in the hands; to twist, as yarn, with a wheel; to make warp [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]; yu-be-bliⁿ (yubbliⁿ) - twist something coarse with the hands, as a cord or rope [Kaw]

 

twisted, curled, spiral

be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral

cf. be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms candy; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, literally, twisted tobacco; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands; ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

two

naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two [MS, MR, FR, AB, AG, OM]

noⁿ-pa (nonnepah) - 2 [GI]

noⁿ-ba (n̨B) - two [FS]

noⁿ-pa (noⁿp), (nab) - two [ASG]

ex: haⁿ-pa naⁿ-pa (hąp͓ nąp͓) - two days [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-ta noⁿ-ba (nątt n̨ba) - two ears [ASG]

ex: maⁿ naⁿ-pa i-yo naⁿ i-ya maⁿ-tʰo (m̨ nąp yo ną iy mątʰ) - he wounded Grizzly bear with two arrows, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ti ki naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti wa-xo miⁿ-xti, naⁿ-pa o-ka-shte, i-ya (nkka m̨-xti waxʔ m̨-xti, n̨pa okt, iy) - one male and one female, two remained after the striking down of the others, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ waną, iy) - the rabbit took hold of the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke wa-sa naⁿ-pa ni-kʰa o-wa-kye, i-ya (mat̨ke was nąp nikʰ wakye, iy) - the rabbit spoke to the two black bears, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ba (nⁿba), thoⁿ-ba (thⁿba) - two [Omaha/Ponca]; noⁿ-ba (noⁿba) - two; double; pair [Omaha]; thoⁿ-ba (thoⁿ-b), noⁿ-ba (noⁿ-ba) - two [FL-Osage]; thoⁿ-pa (ǫǫp) - two; the two of them, both of them; twice [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-ba (noⁿbá) - two [Kaw]

 

Two Arrows

maⁿ naⁿ-pa (m̨ n̨pa) - Two Arrows, masculine name [JOD]

cf. maⁿ (m̨) - arrow, arrow shaft; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Male

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ), maⁿ (maⁿ) - an arrow [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - an arrow [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ (m̨), moⁿ (m̨) - arrow; staff used at peyote meetings; maⁿ (maⁿ) - arrow [Kaw]

 

two barreled shotgun

ma-ze o-ki-da-zha-ta (mze okkidatta) - double barrel shotgun, two barreled shotgun, on sccount of 2 barrels [ASG]

cf. ma-ze (mze) - iron; gun; zha-ta (tta) - forked

Dhegiha: zha-ta (zhata) - cloven; forked [Omaha/Ponca]; zha-ta (zhata) - forked [Omaha]; zha-ʰta (zha-ṭa) - forked; clove; parted, as the foot of a deer, buffalo, or cow [FL-Osage]; zha-ʰta (ʰta) - divided, forked, notched, branded, split, cut, sliced [CQ-Osage]; zha-ta (zháta) - forked, notched [Kaw]

 

two bits

de-ska-de naⁿ-pa (dskade nąp) - quarter, two bits

de-ska-de noⁿ-ba (dskade nǫb) - twenty-five cents, quarter [OM]

de-ska-da noⁿ-ba (dskada nǫb) - quarter, twenty-five cents [LQ]

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents, Muskogean skali money, Fr. escalin shilling; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; de-ska-de miⁿ-xti (dskade m̨xti) - dime, ten cents; de-ska-de to-wa (dskade tow) - half dollar, four bits, fifty cents [LQ]; de-ska-de sha-pe (dskade app) - seventy-five cents

 

Two Buffalo Bulls

te to-ka naⁿ-pa (tte tka n̨pa) - Two Buffalo Bulls, masculine name [JOD]

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; to-ka (tka) - male animal; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: te nu-ga noⁿ-ba (te nga noⁿba) - Two Buffalo Bulls, male name [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: nu-ga (nga) - male animal, applied to animals and birds, not humans [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-ga (nuga) - male animal [Omaha]; do-ga (do-g) - male [FL-Osage]; to-ka (took) - male [CQ-Osage]; do-ga (dog), doⁿ-ga (doⁿg) - male [Kaw]

 

Two Buffalo Chief

ka-hi-ke noⁿ-ba tʰe (kahke n̨ba tʰe) - Two Buffalo Chief

cf. ka-hi-ke (kahke) - chief; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; tʰe (tʰe) - the pair; collective inanimate

 

two each, by twos, two apiece

naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ba thoⁿ-thoⁿ (naⁿbaaⁿaⁿ) - by twos, two at a time; two here and there; two to each [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-thoⁿ (thⁿthoⁿ) - distributive term [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿthoⁿthⁿ) - by ones; one at a time; one here and there; one to each [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: thoⁿ-ba noⁿ-the (thoⁿ-ba noⁿ-the) - two at a time; two to each person; two by two [FL-Osage]; noⁿ-ba yaⁿ-ye (noⁿbá yaⁿye) - two apiece, two each, distributive [Kaw]

Dhegiha: naⁿ-the (ną) - a certain number or amount of time, a certain number or amount per person [CQ-Osage]; yaⁿ-ye (-yáⁿye) - distributive suffix for numerals, apiece; now and then [Kaw]

 

two hundred

kde-bdaⁿ hi zhi-ka naⁿ-pa (kdbdąhik nąp) - two hundred

cf. kde-bdaⁿ hi zhi-ka (kdbdąhik) - hundred; kde-bdaⁿ hi (kdbdą h) - hundred, a stock of tens; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; miⁿ

Dhegiha: gthe-ba hi wiⁿ noⁿ-ba (gthbahwiⁿ nⁿba) - two hundred [Omaha/Ponca]; gthe-bthoⁿ hiu noⁿ-ba (gthe-bthoⁿ hiu noⁿ-ba) - two hundred [FL-Osage]; le-braⁿ hu zhiⁿ thoⁿ-pa (lbrą huų ̨ǫp) - two hundred [CQ-Osage]; le-blaⁿ hu noⁿ-ba (léblaⁿ hú noⁿbá) - two hundred [Kaw]

 

two only, just two

naⁿ-pa hi (nąphi), naⁿ-ba hi (nąbhi) - two only, just two

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; hi (hi) - very; with numerals: just, only

 

Two Ravens

ka-xe naⁿ-pa (kkγe n̨pa) - Two Crows or Ravens, masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

Dhegiha: ka-xe thaⁿ-ba (k͓-xe ⁿba) - Two Crows, male name [JOD-Omaha]; ʰka-xe thoⁿ-ba (ḳ-xe thoⁿ-ba) - Two Crows, male personal name, refers to the feathers used in making the staff of authority in buffalo hunting [FL-Osage]

 

Two Ravens in Motion

ka-xe naⁿ-pa niⁿ (kkγe n̨pa nį) - Two Ravens in Motion, masculine name [JOD]

cf. ka-xe (kkγe) - raven; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

 

two sleeps, Tuesday

naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday, lit. two sleeps

naⁿ-pa zhoⁿ (nąp ǫ) - Tuesday [MS]

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline, sleep

Dhegiha: aⁿ-ba naⁿ-ba zhaⁿ xti-e-gaⁿ (ⁿba nⁿba jⁿ-qtigaⁿ) - in about two days (of sleeps) [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ba zhaⁿ (noⁿbá zhaⁿ) - two days [Kaw]

 

Two Standing Suns

mi naⁿ-pa na-zhiⁿ tʰaⁿ (mi n̨pa ną tʰą) - Two Standing Suns, female name [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

 

two Sundays, fortnight

haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

cf. haⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-ba (h̨ba), hoⁿ-pa (h̨pa), haⁿ-pa (h̨pa) - day, daytime; wa-te-xi (wattxi) - difficult, too much, too high a price; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ba wa-ʰkoⁿ-da-gi thoⁿ-ba (ⁿ-ba wa-ḳoⁿ-da-gi thoⁿ-ba) - once in two weeks, a fortnight [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]; wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

 

Two Suns

mi naⁿ-pa (mi n̨pa) - Two Suns, female name [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun, moon, orb; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

 

two times, twice

hi-naⁿ-paⁿ-iⁿ (hnąp̨į) - twice, two times

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; hi-naⁿ-pa a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold

 

Two Upright Horns

he naⁿ-pa kde (he n̨pa kde) - Two Upright Horns, masculine name, father of te zhi-ka (tte ka) Buffalo Calf [JOD]

cf. he (he) - horn, antler; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; kde (kde) - placed upright or in a standing position

Dhegiha: he thoⁿ-pa (h ǫǫpa) - braids (lit., two horns; ponytails (two sections of hair, one gathered from left and one from right side of the head, bound close to the scalp, and hanging loosely) [CQ-Osage]; he yoⁿ-ba (h yoⁿba) - braids; pigtails in hair [Kaw]

 

two, bite in two

da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two bda-ba-xe (bdbaγe) - I, ta-ba-xe (ttbaγe) - you

cf. da (da) - by mouth; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: wa-so-so ta-ba-xe e (wasso ttbaγe e) - did you bite the cord in two?

Dhegiha: tha-ba-xe (tha-b-xe) - to bite in two a string or cord [FL-Osage]; ya-ba-ghe (yabghe) - bite in two, pull apart by biting [Kaw]

 

two, both or pair

ni-kaⁿ-ni (nkkąn), ni-koⁿ-ni-hi (nikk̨nihi) - pair, both

ex: si ni-kaⁿ-ni (si nkkąn) - both feet

ex: iⁿ-shta ni-koⁿ-ni (inschta nikkoni) - both eyes (deaux yeux) [GI]

ex: naⁿ-ta ni-kaⁿ-ni (nt nuktan) - both ears [ASG]

ex: hoⁿ-pe ni-kaⁿ-ni (hǫp nkkąn) - moccasin/both [JOD]

ex: shi-naⁿ iⁿ-tʰaⁿ ha hoⁿ-pe ni-kaⁿ-ni o-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (ną įtʰ̨ ha hǫp nkkąn otʰ̨ ną, iy) - and he (Rabbits son) put on a pair of owl skin moccasins, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰku-wiⁿ (nⁿ-ḳu-wiⁿ) - the two, both [FL-Osage]; na-ʰkoⁿiⁿ (naʰkǫ̨), naⁿ-ʰko-wiⁿ (nąʰkwį) - pair, couple, the two of them [CQ-Osage]; noⁿ-koⁿ-mi (nⁿkoⁿm) - pair, both, couple, two together [Kaw]

 

two, both, also, too, that one too

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa), naⁿ-pa (n̨pa) - both, also, too

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa (mikk mat̨ke enąp) - raccoon and rabbit, the both of them [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ni-ka she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa (nkka mika enąp) - both the man and little girl [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka niⁿ-kʰe she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kda-we, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka nįkʰ mika enąp kdwe, iywe) - then both the man and little girl started homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka she-mi-zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kde pa, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka mika enąp kde p, iywe) - then both the man and little girl were going homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp) - yes, my mothers brother and also my fathers sister (addressing Winter and his wife) [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną, iy) - Rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ba (thoⁿba) - also, too: refers to two objects, and to no more [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-pa (-thoⁿ-ba) - and; he also; of the two divisions [FL-Osage]; e-thoⁿ-pa (eǫǫpa) - group including just mentioned individual(s) (can sometimes be translated as both, all, and another, and others, or as and I when followed by a verb with 1st pl. inflection) [CQ-Osage]; e-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - both, too, also; and (used with nouns) [Kaw]

 

two, braid or plait a lariat in two strands

a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ (kkidibbnį) - braid, plait a lariat in two strands

cf. be-bniⁿ (bbnį), be-bni (bbni) - twisted, curled, spiral; be-bniⁿ-bniⁿ (bbnįbnį) - twisted round and round; bi-be-bni (bibbni) - twist, roll with the palms; di-be-bniⁿ (dibbnį) - twist with the hands; ta-ni di-be-bni (tan dibbni) - cigar, lit. twisted tobacco; o-di-bdi (dibd) - spiral motion; wa-zhoⁿ-ke ski-de di-be-bni (wąke skde dibbni) - candy, spiral stick candy

ex: a-ki-di-be-bniⁿ ka-xa (kkidibnį kaγ) - plait it in two strands!

ex: ni-zhi-ha di-be-bniⁿ (niha dibbnį) - braid hair [MS]

Dhegiha: thi-be-bthiⁿ (thibbthiⁿ) - to twist, as yarn, with a wheel [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-be-bthiⁿ (thi-b-bthiⁿ) - to twist [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: be-bthiⁿ (bbthiⁿ) - warped, twisted, crooked [Omaha/Ponca]; be-bliⁿ (bbliⁿ) - twisted, course [Kaw]

 

two, cut in two

            ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two a-ba-xe (baγ) - I, da-ba-xe (dbaγ) - you

cf. ka (ka) - by striking; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe a-ba-xe (mątt-kką nįkʰe baγ) - I cut the canoe string (with the hatchet) [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ ka-ba-xe (ą kabγe) - to cut a tree or wood [MS]

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ga-ba-xe (ga-ba-xe) - to break a string; to cut; demolisher [FL-Osage]

 

pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord pa-a-ba-xe (pabγe) - I, pa-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

cf. pa (p) - by cutting with a knife; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two

Dhegiha: ba-ba-xe (b-ba-xe) - to cut a cord or a rope with a knife [FL-Osage]; ba-ba-ghe (babághe) - push apart, pull; to break a cord, etc. with the point of a knife or stick pushed firmly against it [Kaw]; ba-ba-ghe (bábaghe) - chop something up, to pull apart; to cut a cord, etc. with a knife [Kaw]

 

two, pull something between two objects

o-bi-saⁿ-te (obsątte) - pull something between two objects o-pi-saⁿ-te (oppsątte) - I, o-shpi-saⁿ-te (opsątte) - you

cf. wa-tʰe a-bi-saⁿ-te (watʰ bisątte) - to iron a dress; a-bi-saⁿ-te (bisątte) - catch by pressing on; hold down, e.g., on his back; lie on something; a-bi-saⁿ-te zhaⁿ (bisątte ̨) - roll over on something; throw oneself down on; a-bi-saⁿ-te-zhi (bisątti) - press down on, weight, hold down

Dhegiha: u-bi-saⁿ-de (u-b-san-de) - a narrow place [JOD-Omaha]; u-bi-soⁿ-de (ubioⁿde) - compact, crowded [Omaha]; u-bi-soⁿ-dse (u-b-oⁿ-dse) - close together; crowded [FL-Osage]

 

two, put two objects so their ends or edges touch

a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-he-a-de (kkikkkde ihade) - I, a-ki-ki-kde i-he-da-de (kkikkkde ihdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch

Dhegiha: i-he-the (i-h-ĕ) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting (curvilinear--JOD) objects so their edges touch a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-a-de (kkikną in̨ade) - I, a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-da-de (kkikną in̨dade) - you

cf. knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; stode knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth/paper

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthaⁿ (-gi-gaⁿ) - to place his own cv. ob., book, paper, piece of calico, etc., on something else; to apply his medicine externally, as a plaster or poultice [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu-laⁿ (gulaⁿ) - set ones object upon; set ones cloth, paper, book, etc., on a surface; set a squat object on a surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-the (inoⁿthe) - put away, put it down [Omaha]; i-noⁿ-the (i-nⁿ-the) - to put upon the ground [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-thaⁿ-the (iaⁿĕ) - to put down [JOD-Omaha]; i-thoⁿ-the (i-thⁿ-the) - to put something away that is round [FL-Osage]; i-yaⁿ-ye (iyⁿye) - put, place a sitting/inanimate object anywhere [Kaw]

 

a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-a-de (kkikkkde itʰade) - I, a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-da-de (kkikkkde itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-ʰki-gthe (ḳiḳigthe) to join two boards or poles [FL-Osage]; a-ki-ki-le (akkile) - stacked on top of each other; joined at the ends making a joint, as two boards [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-te-the (i-t-ĕ) - put it; to put or place, make stand, usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to put down something erect [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-a-de (kkikdska itʰade) - I, a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-da-de (kkikdska itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: i-te-the (i-t-ĕ) - put it; to put or place, make stand, usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to put down something erect [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

two, sew two things together

a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across a-a-ki-pa-tʰe (akkppatʰe) - I, a-da-ki-shpa-tʰe (dakkpatʰe) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-tʰa-we (ǫkkkipatʰawe) - we

cf. ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew; a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on; ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sew ones own; o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together; wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha (wabtʰ iha) - sewing bag

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-pʰa-tʰe (kʰipʰtʰe) - to sew across; to sew two things together [Omaha/Ponca]

 

two, shoot in two

po-ba-xe (pbaγe) - shoot a rope, cord in two po-a-ba-xe (poabaγe) - I, po-da-ba-xe (pdabγe) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing; ba-ba-xe (babγe) - break by thrusting; da-ba-xe (dabγe) - bite in two; di-ba-xe (dibxe) - break by pulling; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two; we-ka-ba-xe (wkabγe) - mower, grass cutter; naⁿ-ba-xe (nąbγe) - break a cord with the feet; pa-ba-xe (pbaγe) - cut in two, as a cord

Dhegiha: bo-ba-ghe (bóbaghe) - shoot a cord in two [Kaw]

 

po-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - shoot in two, break punching po-a-xoⁿ (poxǫ) - I, po-da-xoⁿ (pdaxǫ) - you, po-oⁿ-xoⁿ-we (Pǫxǫw) - we

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing; bi-xoⁿ (bix̨) - break, crush; da-xoⁿ (dax̨) - break by biting; di-xoⁿ (dix̨) - break, as a stick with the hands; ka-xoⁿ (kax̨) - break something by hitting it; a-ka-xoⁿ (kaxǫ) - break something by striking another object; pa-xoⁿ (pxǫ) - cut apart, disjoint

Dhegiha: mu-xoⁿ (mqoⁿ) - to break by shooting, as the limb of a tree [Omaha/Ponca]; bo-xoⁿ (bóxoⁿ) - break, as a bone, by shooting [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xoⁿ (qⁿ) - broken, but not in two: said of a chair, bone, etc.; xoⁿ (xoⁿ) - to break; just a simple break [FL-Osage]; xoⁿ (x̨) - break, broken [CQ-Osage]

 

two, split in two

            shte-ke (tke) - split in two

cf. o-di-shte (odte) - half (number or quantity); saw, split by sawing; zhoⁿ di-shte (ǫ dte) - plank, split wood; ka-shte (kat) - gash, slit something striking it; ki-kda-shte (kkikdte) - cut, gash ones own; pa-shte (pte) - cut

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi niⁿ-kʰe shte-ke naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi nįkʰ tke ną, iy) - then the Hill split in two, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: stse-ge (sts-ge) - split [FL-Osage]; stse-ge (scge) - gashed [Kaw]

 

two, the two of ours

aⁿ-ko-ta (ąktta), oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, (dual)

aⁿ-ko-ta (angta) - our [ASG]

cf. wi-ta (wtta) - my, mine (alienable); di-ta (dtta) - your, yours, (alienable); di-ta-we (dttawe) - your plural, yours, you alls (alienable); i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its (alienable); i-ta-we (ittwe), e-ta-we (ettwe) - their, theirs; aⁿ-ko-ta-we (ąkttawe), oⁿ-ko-ta-we (ǫkttawe) - our, ours (plural)

ex: shoⁿ-ke aⁿ-ko-ta (̨ke ąktta) - our dog

Dhegiha: oⁿ-gu-ta (oⁿgta) - belonging to us two; ours [Omaha/Ponca]; aⁿ-gu-ta (a-g-ṭa) - our own [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-gu-ʰta (oⁿ-gu-ṭa) - our [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ko-ʰta (ąkʰta) - ours; our (belonging to two or more of us; we ourselves (emphatic) [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-go-ta (aⁿgta) - our, ours, be ours [Kaw]

 

two, the two of us

aⁿ (ą), oⁿ (ǫ), aⁿ-ka (ąka), oⁿ-ka (ǫka), aⁿ-ko (ąko), oⁿ-ko (ǫko), aⁿ-naⁿ (ąn̨), wa (wa) - we, 1st person dual, I and one other

ex: aⁿ-ka-de (ąkde) - we go, 1st person dual, I and one other, from de (de) - go

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde (̨kakd) - we go home, 1st person dual, I and one other, from kde (kd) - go home, to start homeward

ex: oⁿ-ka-kdi (ǫkkdi) - we have come back here, 1st person dual, I and one other, from kdi (kdi) - to have come back here

ex: aⁿ-kiⁿ (ąkʔį) - we carry, 1st person dual, I and one other, from kiⁿ (kʔį) - carry, pack on the back

ex: aⁿ-kniⁿ (ąkn̨) - we sit, we camp, 1st person dual, I and one other, from kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be in a place, camp

ex: oⁿ-ko-ta (ǫktta) - our, the two of ours, from i-ta (itt), e-ta (ett) - his, hers, its

ex: aⁿ-ka-xe (ąkγe) - we make, 1st person dual, I and one other, from ka-xe (kγe) - make, do, cause

ex: aⁿ-kiⁿ (ąk̨) - we wear, 1st person dual, I and one other, from iⁿ (ʔį) - wear

ex: aⁿ-koⁿ (ąk̨) - we do, 1st person dual, I and one other, from oⁿ (ʔǫ) - do, be; use, have

ex: aⁿ-koⁿ-da (ąk̨da) - we want, 1st person dual, I and one other, from koⁿ-da (kǫd) - want, desire, wish

ex: aⁿ-naⁿ-de (ąn̨de) - we see, 1st person dual, I and one other, from i-de (de) - see, find

ex: aⁿ-zhaⁿ (ą̨) - we sleep, 1st person dual, I and one other, from zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - sleep, lie, recline

ex: te-aⁿ-de (tʔęde) - we kill, 1st person dual, I and one other, from te-de (tʔede) - kill

 

two, those dual or these dual

de-da-tʰe (ddatʰe) - these dual/standing/inanimate

cf. de (de) - this; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; de-tʰe (dtʰe) - this standing/inanimate

 

ka-da-tʰe (kdatʰe) - those dual/standing/invisible/inanimate

cf. ka (k) - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ka-tʰe (ktʰe) - that standing/invisible/inanimate or that collection/invisible/inanimate

 

ko-i-da-tʰe (kidatʰ) - those remote dual/standing/visible/inanimate

cf. ko-i (ki) - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ko-i-tʰe (kitʰe) - that remote singular/standing/visible/inanimate

 

ko-wa-da-tʰe (kwadatt) - those dual/standing/inanimate or collections

cf. ko-wa (kwa) - yonder, further; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; ko-wa-tʰe (kwatʰe) - that singular/standing/inanimate or collection

ex: zhoⁿ ko-wa-da-tʰe (ǫ kwadatt) - yon two trees

 

she-da-tʰe (datʰe) - those dual/standing/visible/inanimate objects

cf. she () - that; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; she-tʰe (tʰe) - this singular or collection/standing/inanimate

 

to-wa-da-tʰe (twadatʰ) - those dual/standing or collection/inanimate objects on this side

cf. to-wa (twa) - on this side of a certain point; da-tʰe (datʰ) - those or these dual; to-wa-tʰe (twatʰe) - that singular/standing or collection/inanimate object on this side

 

twofold, double

hi-naⁿ-pa a-ki-kde (hnąp kkikd) - double, twofold

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; hi-[numeral] a-ki-kde (hi-[numeral]-kkikde) - times, fold, x-fold

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ba a-kʰi-gthe (nⁿba kʰigthe) - two together, or two joints [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-gthe (kʰigthe) - together; at a time [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ki-le (ákile) - on top of each other, stacked [Kaw]

 

 

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