English to Quapaw Dictionary

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Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

Track

si-kde (sikd) - Track, male personal name of Old Man Hominy, often misspelled as Sig-Dah Track [MS]

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprints; a footprint; in the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (igthe) - foot print; animal track; foot path [Omaha]; si-gthe (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

track, birds track

wa-zhiⁿ-ka si-kde (wąka skde) - birds track(s)

cf. wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wąka) - bird; si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

 

track, footprint, trail

si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

si-kde (sikd) - track, footprint [MS]

cf. si (si) - foot

ex: si-kde tʰe (sikd-tʰe) - the footprint

ex: si-kde a-shi-ti i-da-de (sikd itti idde) - I saw some footprints outside my house [MS]

ex: si-kde wi-ta zhi (sikd wtta i) - they're not my tracks [MS]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprints; a footprint; in the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (igthe) - foot print; animal track; foot path [Omaha]; si-gthe (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; ʰta si-le ʰtawaⁿ (ʰtaaslee ʰtawą) - Tulsa, Oklahoma, literally, deer crossing town [CQ-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

si-kde maⁿ-niⁿ (sikd mąn̨) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk

 

si-kde naⁿ-pa (sikd n̨pa) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

 

si-kde naⁿ-po (sikd n̨po) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

 

si-kde naⁿ-po-i (sikd nąpi) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

 

si-kde taⁿ-ka (sikd tt̨ka) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

si-kde xo-we (sikd xwe) - masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; xo-we (xwe) - sacred, holy

 

track, leave a mark or track

o-ka-maⁿ-te (okmątte) - leave a mark or track o-a-ka-maⁿ-te (okamątte) - I, o-da-ka-maⁿ-te (odkamątte) - you

 

tracks, Tracks in the Prairie

ma-zhaⁿ ti si-kde (mą tti sikd) - Tracks in the Prairie, masculine name [JOD]

cf. ma-zhaⁿ (mą), ma-zhoⁿ (mą) - land; ti (tti) - at, by, in; si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

Dhegiha: moⁿ-zhoⁿ dsi si-gthe (moⁿ-zhⁿ-dsi i-gthe) - Tracks on the Prairies, male personal name, refers to the bear tracks [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ma-zhⁿ a-di (mazhⁿadi) - on the land [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-zhoⁿ dsi (moⁿ-zhⁿ dsi) - on the prairies, on the earth, on the march

 

tracks, train tracks

pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da o-zhoⁿ-ke (pptte ̨ditt̨da oǫke) - railway lit. fire wagon road

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; o-zhoⁿ-ke (ǫke) - road

Dhegiha: u-zhoⁿ-ge (uzhⁿge) - a road, way: a street [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhoⁿ-ge (uzhoⁿge) - road [Omaha]; u-zhoⁿ-ge (u-zhoⁿ-ge) - a trail, a path, a route to be taken, a thoroughfare, a road [FL-Osage]; o-zhaⁿ-ke (ąke) - road, highway, thoroughfare, route, path, pathway, orbit [CQ-Osage]; o-zhaⁿ-ge (ozhⁿge) - road, line of fireplaces in a camp [Kaw]

 

trade something of someones on him

i-ki-ka-iⁿ-ki-de (kkikkįkkde) - trade something of someones on him

cf. i-ki-ka-iⁿ-de (kkikkaįde) - trade, barter, exchange

ex: i-ki-kaⁿ-ki-de (kkikk̨kid), i-ki-ka-iⁿ-aⁿ-ki-de (kkikkįąkide) - he traded it away; traded it on me [JOD-Omaha]

ex: e-ti, iⁿ-ta-te zhi-ka shoⁿ-ke-akniⁿ e-naⁿ-hi aⁿ-taⁿ ni-he taⁿ, aⁿ-ki-niⁿ hi-da taⁿ i-ki-kaⁿ-ki-de tʰe (ett, įtttte-ika ̨keknį enąh ątt̨ nihe-tą, ąknį hid-tą kkikk̨kid tʰ) - there, my stepfather took away from me the only horse that I possessed and traded it way on me [JOD]

ex: ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ wi-ta ko-i-shoⁿ i-ki-kaⁿ-ki-de tʰe, aⁿ-ki-da-zhi hi tʰe aⁿ-shoⁿ-zhi a-ta-pa (kįttą, ̨kidi h ̨keknį wtta kį kkikk̨kid tʰe, ̨kidi h tʰe ą̨i ttapp) - so, he really did not tell me in spite of its being my horse, that he traded it on me, I did not like it much that he did not tell me at all [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te zhi-ka aⁿ-naⁿ-ho-da-zhi hi shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ wi-ta i-ki-kaⁿ-ki-de tʰe aⁿ-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (įtttte-ika ąn̨hodi h ̨keknį wtta kkikk̨kid tʰe ̨hott̨ ttah-i) - it is not good for me at all that my stepfather traded my horse away on me without even having consulted me [JOD]

Dhegiha: i-kʰi-kʰa-wiⁿ-the (kʰikʰwiⁿthe) - to exchange things of equal value [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ki-koⁿ-wiⁿ-the (ikkoⁿwiⁿthe), i-ki-goⁿ-wiⁿ-the (iki goⁿwiⁿthe) - change; trade; switch; exchange [Omaha]; i-ki-ka-wiⁿ-the (kikwiⁿĕ) - trade [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ-the (-ḳi-ḳa-wiⁿ-the) - to exchange; to trade; to barter [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ (-ḳi-ḳa-wiⁿ) - to exchange; trade [FL-Osage]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ (ʰkiʰkawį) - exchange, trade, swap, change [CQ-Osage]; i-ki-ka-be (íkikabe) - exchange [Kaw]

 

trade, barter, exchange

i-ki-ka-iⁿ-de (kkikkaįde) - trade, barter, exchange i-ki-ka-iⁿ-a-de (kkikkaįade) - I, i-ki-ka-iⁿ-da-de (kkikkaįdade) - you

cf. i-ki-ka-iⁿ-ki-de (kkikkįkkde) - trade something of someones on him; i-ki-kaⁿ-ki-de (kkikk̨kid), i-ki-ka-iⁿ-aⁿ-ki-de (kkikkįąkide) - he traded it away; traded it on me

Dhegiha: i-kʰi-kʰa-wiⁿ-the (kʰikʰwiⁿthe) - to exchange things of equal value [Omaha/Ponca]; i-i-koⁿ-wiⁿ-the (ikkoⁿwiⁿthe), i-ki-goⁿ-wiⁿ-the (iki goⁿwiⁿthe) - change; trade; switch; exchange [Omaha]; i-ki-ka-wiⁿ-the (kikwiⁿĕ) - trade [JOD-Omaha]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ-the (-ḳi-ḳa-wiⁿ-the) - to exchange; to trade; to barter [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ (-ḳi-ḳa-wiⁿ) - to exchange; trade [FL-Osage]; i-ʰki-ʰka-wiⁿ (ʰkiʰkawį) - exchange, trade, swap, change [CQ-Osage]; i-ki-ka-be (íkikabe) - exchange [Kaw]

 

trade, buy

wa-niⁿ (wan̨) - buy, trade wa-bniⁿ (wabn̨) - I, wa-tiⁿ (watt̨) - you, oⁿ-wa-niⁿ-we (ǫwnįwe) - we

cf. we-niⁿ (wnį) - sell

Dhegiha: wa-thiⁿ-wiⁿ (wathiⁿwiⁿ) - buy; shop [Omaha]; wa-thi-wiⁿ (wa-th-wiⁿ) - to purchase; one who purchases; a purchaser; one who sells; a trader [FL-Osage]; wa-thu-wiⁿ (wawį) - buy things [CQ-Osage]; wa-yu-miⁿ (wayúmiⁿ) - buy things, shop [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ-wiⁿ (thiⁿwⁿ) - to buy or purchase any object; to trade [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-wiⁿ (thi-wiⁿ) - to purchase [FL-Osage]; thu-wiⁿ (uw̨) - to buy; to purchase; to get by exchange of money for article [CQ-Osage]; yu-miⁿ (yumíⁿ) - buy something [Kaw]

Dhegiha: we-thiⁿ-wiⁿ (wthiⁿwiⁿ) - to sell [Omaha/Ponca]; we-thi-wiⁿ (wthiwiⁿ) - sell [Omaha]; we-thi-wiⁿ (w-thi-wiⁿ) - to sell or to purchase [FL-Osage]; we-thu-wiⁿ (wuwį) - sell something by bartering for other stuff; buy or acquire stuff with something [CQ-Osage]

 

trader

wa-taⁿ niⁿ (watt̨ nį) - trader

cf. wa-taⁿ (watt̨) - goods, merchandise; niⁿ (nį) - 3rd person continuative moving; be in a location, exist; the singular/moving/animate; wa-toⁿ-zhi ti (watt̨i tt) - a store

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtoⁿ (wa-ṭⁿ) - ware, goods, anything sold or exchanged at a store or trading place [FL-Osage]; wa-toⁿ (watⁿ) - property, goods [Kaw]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtoⁿ u-zhi (wa-ṭⁿ u-zhi) - a dry-goods store, a place to store goods, a warehouse [FL-Osage]; wa-toⁿ-zhu (wat̨ǫu) - store, trading house [CQ-Osage]

 

traffic jam

a-ki-pa-to i-he-de (kkippatʔo ihde) - close off, stop up, clog, as in a traffic jam

cf. a-ki-pa-to ka-xe (kkippatʔo kγe) - close, as sliding doors; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object; a-ba-to (batʔo) - stop, impede progress; wa-ba-to (wbatʔo) - stop, obstruct, impede; a-ki-pa (kkippa) - meet a person or animal; a-ki-pai-naⁿ (kkippain̨) - collide, run into, to butt

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-pʰa-tu (kʰipʰat) - to collide, said of two objects [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰki-pa-ʰtsu (-ḳi-pa-ṭsu) - the blocking of a narrow passage by men or animals [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-ba-tu (batu) - to brace or prop an object to keep it from falling [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ba-ʰtu (-ba-ṭu) - to prevent one from moving by holding one back [FL-Osage]; a-ba-tso (batso) - brace something, prop something up; to hesitate or draw back through shame or diffidence; be bashful, hesitant [Kaw]

 

trail, Mysterious Trail

si-kde wa-kaⁿ-ta (sikd wakk̨tta) - Mysterious Trail, masculine name [JOD]

cf. si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track; wa-kaⁿ-ta (wakk̨tta) - God, spirit, thunder being, mysterious, mysterious being, supernatural

 

trail, to follow a trail or tracks

o-do-he (odhe) - trail, track, follow their trail/tracks [JOD]

ex: o-do-wa-he (odwahe) - trailing them [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thu-pshe (u-th-pshe) - to follow a trail of an animal [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: si-gthe u-thu-he (sigth uthhe) - to follow the trail of one, not a relation, or that of animal not his own [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe u-thu-he (igthe uthuhe) - track [Omaha]

 

trail, track, footprint

si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

si-kde (sikd) - track, footprint [MS]

cf. si (si) - foot

ex: si-kde tʰe (sikd-tʰe) - the footprint

ex: si-kde a-shi-ti i-da-de (sikd itti idde) - I saw some footprints outside my house [MS]

ex: si-kde wi-ta zhi (sikd wtta i) - they're not my tracks [MS]

ex: si-kde di-ta e-koⁿ wi-ta zhi (sikd dtta ek̨ wtta i) - it looks just like your tracks, not mine [MS]

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprints; a footprint; in the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (igthe) - foot print; animal track; foot path [Omaha]; si-gthe (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; ʰta si-le ʰtawaⁿ (ʰtaaslee ʰtawą) - Tulsa, Oklahoma, literally, deer crossing town [CQ-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

trail, walk in the trail of another (made long ago)

a-shi-oⁿ-he o-ki-si-kde (iǫh kisikd) - walk in the trail of another (made long ago) a-shi-oⁿ-he o-a-ki-si-a-kde (iǫh okisi akd) - I, a-shi-oⁿ-he o-da-ki-si-da-kde (iǫh odkisi dakd) - you, a-shi-oⁿ-he oⁿ-ko-ki-si-oⁿ-kda-we (iǫh ǫkkisi ǫkdwe) - we

cf. a-shi-oⁿ-he (iǫhe) - behind, or after him, afterward; last of a party or series, last one; si-kde (sikd) - footprint, trail, track

Dhegiha: ha-shi (hci) - last, after [JOD-Omaha]; ha-shi (hashi) - last [Omaha]; ha-shi (h-shi) - end, the last, omega [FL-Osage]; ha-shi (haa) - last, in the back of, behind [CQ-Osage]; ha-shi (hshi) - last, tail end [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si-gthe (sigth) - footprints; a footprint; in the track or trail of a person or animal [Omaha/Ponca]; si-gthe (igthe) - foot print; animal track; foot path [Omaha]; si-gthe (i-gth) - track, footprint [FL-Osage]; ʰta si-le ʰtawaⁿ (ʰtaaslee ʰtawą) - Tulsa, Oklahoma, literally, deer crossing town [CQ-Osage]; si-dle (sidl), si-le (sil), (sle) - footprints, a trail [Kaw]

 

train

pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (pptte ̨ditt̨da) - locomotive, lit. fire wagon

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around

 

pe-te zhoⁿ di-taⁿ-da so-te (ptte ̨ ditąd sot) - railroad engine [JOD]

zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da so-te (̨ditt̨da sott) - train, wagon go fast [MS]

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; so-te (sott) - fast, swift of an animal

 

pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da ti (pptte ̨ditt̨da tt) - train, lit. fire wagon house

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

Dhegiha: pe-de (pde) - fire, match [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰpe-dse (p̣-dse) - fire [FL-Osage]; ʰpe-tse (ʰpece) - fire, cooking fire, meeting fire, cooking stove gas fire [CQ-Osage]; pe-je (pje) - fire [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood, tree, yard of cloth, span of horses [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood, a tree, fuel [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (ą́ą) - tree, log, wood, lumber, stick, pole, woods, forest [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - wood, a tree, or log [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (thi-ṭoⁿ́-tha) - to roll [FL-Osage]; u-thi-ʰtoⁿ-tha (u-th-ṭoⁿ-tha) - anything propelled by rolling, a wagon, buggy, a carriage [FL-Osage]; o-thi-taⁿ (oʰtą) - car, wagon [CQ-Osage]; i-taⁿ-yaⁿ (taⁿyaⁿ) - wagon, cart [Kaw]; o-yu-taⁿ-ya (oytaⁿya), o-yu-taⁿ-ya (yutaⁿya) - wagon, cart [Kaw]

 

train tracks

pe-te zhoⁿ-di-taⁿ-da o-zhoⁿ-ke (pptte ̨ditt̨da oǫke) - railway lit. fire wagon road

cf. pe-te (pptte) - fire; zhaⁿ-di-taⁿ-da (̨ditt̨da) - wagon, running wood; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-taⁿ-da (odttąda) - turn something, pull around; o-zhoⁿ-ke (ǫke) - road

Dhegiha: u-zhoⁿ-ge (uzhⁿge) - a road, way: a street [Omaha/Ponca]; u-zhoⁿ-ge (uzhoⁿge) - road [Omaha]; u-zhoⁿ-ge (u-zhoⁿ-ge) - a trail, a path, a route to be taken, a thoroughfare, a road [FL-Osage]; o-zhaⁿ-ke (ąke) - road, highway, thoroughfare, route, path, pathway, orbit [CQ-Osage]; o-zhaⁿ-ge (ozhⁿge) - road, line of fireplaces in a camp [Kaw]

 

trample

naⁿ-ta-te (nątttʔe) - trample to death a-naⁿ-ta-te (an̨ttatʔe) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-te (dan̨ttatʔe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; te (tʔe) - die; ta-te (ttʔe) - withered from heat or cold; ba-ta-te (batttʔe) - kill, cause to wither; bi-ta-te (bitttʔe) - press to death; da-tʰa-te (datʰtʔe) - gnaw to death; di-ta-te (ditttʔe) - uproot a plant, pull up; ka-ta-te (katttʔe) - kill, cut off, cause to wither; pa-ta-te (pttatʔe) - wither, cause by cutting; po-ta-te (pttatʔe) - kill vegetation by punching; ta-ta-te (tttatʔe) - wither from exposure to heat

 

naⁿ-ta-xe (nąttxe) - stomp, trample, thump with feet a-naⁿ-ta-xe (an̨taxe) - I, da-naⁿ-ta-xe (dan̨ttaxe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ta-xe (txe) - dried up, dead from heat/cold, used with almost all instrumental prefixes; a-noⁿ-ta-xe (nǫttxe) - shoes; ba-ta-xe (battxe) - dry up, root up the soil; bi-ta-xe (bittxe) - dry up, press dry; da-ta-xe (dattxe) - dry up from being gnawed; di-ta-xe (dittxe) - dry out by pulling up, uproot; ka-ta-xe (kattxe) - crack and die from being cut, as corn; pa-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cut and dry up, e.g. cornstalk; po-ta-xe (pttaxe) - cause to dry up from punching; ta-ta-xe (tttaxe) - dry up and die, as vegetation from the sun

 

naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (nątt̨ha) - crush with feet, trample to bits a-naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (an̨ttąha) - I, da-naⁿ-taⁿ-ha (dan̨ttąha) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-taⁿ-ha (batt̨ha) - pulverize; bi-taⁿ-ha (bitt̨ha) - crush, pulverize; da-taⁿ-ha (datt̨ha) - chew very fine; di-taⁿ-ha (ditt̨ha) - turn crank as on a handmill; wa-di-taⁿ-ha (wadttąha) - cornmeal; wa-di-taⁿ-ha wa-ske (wadttąha wask) - cornbread; ka-taⁿ-ha (katt̨ha) - pound, pulverize; pa-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - cut up very fine, as tobacco; po-taⁿ-ha (pttąha) - pulverize by punching/shooting; ta-taⁿ-ha (tttąha) - burn to ashes, burn up

 

naⁿ-te-ka (nątʔka) - injure by kicking or trampling a-naⁿ-te-ka (an̨tʔeka) - I, da-naⁿ-te-ka (dan̨tʔeka) - you

cf. naⁿ (naⁿ) - by action of the foot; di-te-ka (ditʔkka) - injure, hurt someone; di-te-ka (ditʔka) - weaken an animal or infant

 

translator, interpreter

i-ye-wa-ska (iywaska) - interpreter, lit. talk clear

cf. i-ye (ye) - talk, speak; i-ye (iy), i-e (i) - say; i-ye (ye) - word; wa-ska (wska) - clear, intelligible

Dhegiha: i-e-wa-ska (-e-wa-ka) - an interpreter, translator [FL-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - clear words, interpreter [CQ-Osage]; i-e wa-ska (e wask) - talk clearly, intelligibly, plainly, to interpret, interpreter [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-e-ska (iskă) - interpreter, speak well, interpret, to speak a language plainly, to act as an interpreter [Omaha/Ponca]; i-e-ska (ika) - interpreter [Omaha]; i-e-ska (eska) - speak clearly; clear words, clear language [CQ-Osage]

 

travel

o-ka-shaⁿ (kaą) - journy, travel, wander [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ga-shoⁿ (ugshoⁿ) - to go on a journey, to travel [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-shoⁿ (ugashoⁿ) - expedition; journey; travel [Omaha]; u-ga-shoⁿ (u-g-shoⁿ) - going forth on an errand [FL-Osage]; o-ga-shaⁿ (ogshaⁿ) - travel [Kaw]

 

maⁿ-niⁿ (mąn̨) - walk a-maⁿ-bdiⁿ (am̨bdį) - I, da-maⁿ-tiⁿ (dam̨ttį) - you

ex: haⁿ-e hi da-maⁿ-tiⁿ ni-she? i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (h̨e hi dam̨ttį ni? iy iy sniwtte) - on what very important business are you traveling? it is said Winter said (shows that there must have been some great trouble or important business which forced the Rabbit to wander from his home at such a time) [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿthⁿ) - to walk [Omaha/Ponca]; maⁿ-thiⁿ (maⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk; used to express continued action; to go [JOD-Omaha]; moⁿ-thiⁿ (moⁿ-thiⁿ), moⁿ-iⁿ (moⁿ-ⁿ) - to walk, exist; travel [FL-Osage]; maⁿthiⁿ (mą̨), maⁿ-iⁿ (m̨į) - walk, go by walking, go by foot, go away, go, go on, get moving, go ahead, approach, move in closer, stay, act or live a certain way, go around a certain way [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-yiⁿ (maⁿyⁿ) - walk, move [Kaw]

 

Traveler, Wanderer

o-ka-shaⁿ (kaą) - Travels, Traveler, Wonderer, female name of the Kwapa Elk gens [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ga-shoⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ugshoⁿ zhiⁿga) - Little Traveler, personal name [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ga-shoⁿ (u-g-shoⁿ) - The Wanderer, male personal name; going forth on an errand [FL-Osage]

 

Traveling Sun

mi o-ka-shaⁿ niⁿ (mi kaą nį) - Traveling Sun or Traveling Moon, female name of the Kwapa Sun gens [JOD]

cf. mi (mi) - sun; o-ka-zhaⁿ (kaą) - journy, travel, wander; niⁿ (nį) - the singular/moving/animate; 3sg continuative moving

Dhegiha: mi-ga-shoⁿ thiⁿ (mgashoⁿthiⁿ) - The Traveling Moon; Traveling or Moving Moon; The Moon That Travels; The Moon Moving, female name [Omaha/Ponca]; mi-ga-shoⁿ iⁿ (m-ga-shoⁿ-iⁿ) - Sun That Travels, female name [FL-Osage]

 

tread

naⁿ-ste-ste (nąstste) - kick or tread to pieces a-naⁿ-ste-ste (an̨steste) - I, da-naⁿ-ste-ste (dan̨steste) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; naⁿ-ste (nąst) - kick a gash in something; ba-ste-ste (bastste) - cut to shreds, stab repeatedly; ba-ste (bast) - cut into, gash; bi-ste-ste (bistste) - split repeatedly, shred; bi-ste (bist) - split, gash; da-ste-ste (dsteste) - chew into slivers, v. split; da-ste (dast) - split with teeth; di-ste-ste (distste) - pull into shreds, slivers; di-ste (dist) - split, pull off string; ka-ste-ste (kastste) - cut or beat to shreds/slivers; ka-ste-ste-ye (kaststeye) - to have cut to shreds; ka-ste (kast) - gash, split something; pa-ste-ste (psteste) - cut to slivers, split often; pa-ste (pste) - gash, cut with a knife blade; po-ste-ste (psteste) - shoot or punch to slivers; po-ste (pste) - graze shooting and gash

Dhegiha: ba-stse-stse-ge (b-stse-stse-ge) - to gash the skin with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-stse-stse-ge (ga-sts-stse-ge) - to gash the skin repeatedly [FL-Osage]; thi-stse-stse-ge (thi-sts-stse-ge) - to tear into shreds [FL-Osage]; bu-sce-sce-ge (buscscege) - wear clothing to shreds [Kaw]; ga-stse-stse-ge (gascscege) - gash the skin or split wood repeatedly [Kaw]; yu-sce-sce-ge (yuscscege) - cut into strips, pull to shreds [Kaw]

 

naⁿ-to-zhe (nątte) - make crack sound by treading a-naⁿ-to-zhe (an̨ttoe) - I, da-naⁿ-to-zhe (dan̨ttoe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-to-zhe (batte) - make crack sound pushing; bi-to-zhe (bitte) - make crack sound by pressure; da-to-zhe (datte) - crunch with teeth; naⁿ-pe di-to-zhe (nąp ditte) - crack ones finger joints; ka-to-zhe (katte) - cracking sound hitting something; pa-to-zhe (pttoe) - make cracking sound with knife; po-to-zhe (pttoe) - make crack sound thrusting; ta-to-zhe (tttoe) - cracking sound made by burning

 

naⁿ-zi-ke (nązke) - stretch something by treading on it a-naⁿ-zi-ke (an̨zike) - I, da-naⁿ-zi-ke (dan̨zike) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; bi-zi-ke (bizke) - stretch from pressure or weight; da-zi-ke (dazke) - stretch with the mouth; di-zi-ke (dizke) - stretch by pulling; ki-di-zi-ke (kdizke) - stretch something for someone; kdi-zi-ke (kdizke) - stretch or pull ones own; zi-zi-ke (zzike) - stretching [ASG]; hi-ni-ke zi-zi-ke (hinke zizke) - stockings, hose

Dhegiha: gi-noⁿ-zi-zi-ge (ginⁿzizge) - possessive of noⁿ-zi-zi-ge (nⁿzizge); to stretch his own moccasins or shoes by walking in them [Omaha/Ponca]

 

a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - he trod on his own [JOD]

a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - stand on ones own

cf. a (a) - on, upon; ki (ki) - ones own; na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

ex: a-ki-na-zhiⁿ (kinį) - he trod on his own [JOD]

ex: maⁿ-te kʰe a-ki-na-zhiⁿ a-taⁿ i-ki-kaⁿ-de niⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ (m̨tte kʰe kinį attą kikk̨de n̨ iy mat̨ke ęke nį) - and the Rabbits son was stringing his bow, it is said (when the bow is strung, it is bent with the foot, and the string put on the other end) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-gi-na-zhiⁿ (ginazhⁿ) - to stand on his own land, etc.; to stand between his own friend and the foe; to stand by his own friend or relation [Omaha/Ponca]

 

treadle

naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (nąkkwįγe) - treadle, use to turn something a-naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (an̨kkowįγe) - I, da-naⁿ-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dan̨kkowįγe) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around; bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe), ka-koiⁿ-xe (kakoįγe) - turn around, circle; ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, fire makes him/her/it go around and around

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ʰko-wiⁿ-xe (nⁿ-ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - to cause an object to turn by touching it with the foot [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-ko-mi-ghe (naⁿkómighe) - treadle; cause to spin or revolve by treading, kicking [Kaw]

 

treat

aⁿ-ki-oⁿ (̨kį) - he treated mine [JOD]

cf. e-ki-oⁿ (kiʔǫ) - do as someone has said or done; do that; oⁿ (ʔǫ), aⁿ (ʔą) - do, be; use, have

ex: aⁿ-ki-oⁿ (̨kį) - he treated mine [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I suspect that he has been treating my kinsman so, said the Rabbits son [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-gi-oⁿ (-g-oⁿ) - to do so [FL-Osage]; e-ki-oⁿ (kiǫ) - do something, proceed or go ahead with something, can, be able to [CQ-Osage]; e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ), e-gi-oⁿ (gioⁿ) - do so, do that to another, do something [Kaw]

 

aⁿ-niⁿ (̨nį) - he treats me [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-niⁿ (kie ̨nį) - he has been treating me so [JOD]

 

treat as honorable, respect

oⁿ-hi a-zhiⁿ (ǫh į) - respect, treat as honorable oⁿ-hi a-a-zhiⁿ (ǫh aį), oⁿ-hi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ǫh ąmį) - I, oⁿ-hi a-da-zhiⁿ (ǫh daį) - you, oⁿ-hi oⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ-we (ǫh ̨kaįwe) - we

cf. oⁿ-hi-kde (̨hikde) - to show partiality to someone; a-zhiⁿ (į) - think, regard; to treat as

ex: oⁿ-hi a-wi-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ǫh wiąm̨) - I honor you

 

treat as, think or regard

a-zhaⁿ (ą) - think, regard one as being a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąm̨) - I, a-da-zhaⁿ (daą) - you, oⁿ-ka-zhaⁿ-we (̨kaąwe) - we

a-zhiⁿ (į) - think, regard; to treat as a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (ąmį), a-a-zhiⁿ (aį), a-zhoⁿ (ǫ) - I, a-da-zhiⁿ (daį) - you, oⁿ-ka-zhiⁿ-we (̨kaįwe), aⁿ-ka-zhaⁿ-i (ąkąi) - we

ex: ho-taⁿ a-zhaⁿ-i (httą ąi) - love someone, think well of

ex: oⁿ-hi a-zhiⁿ (ǫh į) - respect, treat as honorable

ex: oⁿ-hi a-wi-zha-miⁿ (ǫh wiam̨) - I honor you

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka e a-zha-miⁿ (nkkaika e amį) - I treat him as a human being

ex: a-zho-wa hi pʰi a-ni-he, so-te a-ni-he, aⁿ-xde te a-zhaⁿ-niⁿ (aow hi pʰ anhe, stte anhe, ̨xde tte aąm̨) - I was coming as fast as possible, I was moving fast, I thought he was going to overtake me [JOD]

ex: i-da-xa naⁿ o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ, i-da-xa-zhi, i-yi (idxa ną dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąm̨, idxa-, iy) - I thought, if I laugh the man eater will see/find me, I didn't laugh, she said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe i-xa koⁿ-da niⁿ-kʰe e-ni-te o-do-tʰe aⁿ-naⁿ-de te a-zha-miⁿ i-da-xa-zhi (waxʔ nįkʰe xa k̨da nįkʰe nitte, dotʰe ąn̨de tte ąmį idxa-i) - the woman wanted to laugh, although she thought he will see/find me, I won't laugh [JOD]

ex: shaⁿ-iⁿ-te iⁿ-spe i-ba-shte a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi (̨įtte ̨spe bate ąm̨, iy) - well, I think it was accidentally split by falling against an axe, he said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-te ta miⁿ-kʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ shoⁿ-hi-te (ątʔe tta mįkʰe aąm̨ ̨hitte) - at any rate, I think I will be dead/die [JOD]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi-xti niⁿ a-zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te (nąpphi-xti n̨ ąm̨, iy iy sniwtte) - I think that he (Rabbit) is very hungry, it is said Winter said [JOD]

ex: he-be wa-da-ki-tiⁿ shi a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya (hbe wdakitt̨ ąm̨, iy iy) - I think that you took a piece for someone, it is said he said [JOD]

ex: ko-i-she aⁿ-ki-oⁿ a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ, e-ta-ni wi-ta, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-zhiⁿ-ke niⁿ-kʰe (kie ̨kį ąm̨, ettni wtta, iy iy mat̨ke ęke nįkʰe) - I think that he has been treating my kinsman so, it is said the Rabbits son said

ex: hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke) - yes! I thought so, it is said rabbit said [JOD]

ex: miⁿ-da-kʰe de, e-de a-zhaⁿ (m̨dakʰe d, ed ą) - I think you are telling the truth [JOD]

ex: haⁿ aⁿ-da-zhaⁿ e (h̨ ądą e) - what do you think about my case?

ex: miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-zhaⁿ-zhi tʰe a-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (m̨kʰe ądąi tʰe ąmį) - I do not think that you believe me

ex: a-ki-zhaⁿ (akį) - she thought about herself [JOD]

ex: o-do-tʰe o-xde te a-ki-zhaⁿ iⁿ (dotʰe oxd tte akį į) - the man eater would overtake her, she thought to herself' (JOD)]

Dhegiha: a-zhiⁿ (-zhiⁿ) - to think or suppose that [FL-Osage]; a-zhiⁿ (ą) - think or believe regarding someone, hold an opinion of something [CQ-Osage]; a-zhiⁿ (azhíⁿ) - think, suppose [Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-zhaⁿ-miⁿ (-jaⁿ-mⁿ) - I think, 1st person singular of an obsolete verb a-zhiⁿ (ajiⁿ) [JOD-Omaha]

 

treat one miserably

wa-xpa-ni-de (waxpnid) - to treat one miserably

cf. wa-xpa-ni (waxpni) - poor, pitiful; de (de) - cause to

ex: wa-xpa-ni-de (waxpnid) - treated her miserably [JOD]

ex: wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de (wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid) - (they) treated the orpan miserably [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-kaⁿ niⁿ wa-haⁿ-niⁿ-ke tʰaⁿ wa-xpa-ni-de haⁿ-e-aⁿ-zhi tʰaⁿ naⁿ (kįttą eką n̨ wah̨nįk tʰą waxpnid h̨eą tʰą ną) - then-so-the moving-orphan-the standing-treated her miserably-a great deal-the standing-past sign [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-xpa-ni (waqpni), wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waqpthiⁿ) - poor, to be poor [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waxpathiⁿ) - poverty, poor [Omaha]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (wa-xp-thiⁿ) - to suffer from exhaustion, in need, poverty-stricken, poor in spirit, in great grief, in sorrow, a mourner [FL-Osage]; wa-xpa-thiⁿ (waxpį), wa-xpaiⁿ (waxpį), wa-xpeiⁿ (waxpį) - poor, poverty stricken, pitiful, humble, long suffering as the victim of pain, poverty, or ill fortune [CQ-Osage]; wa-xpa-yiⁿ (waxpyiⁿ) - be humble, pitiful, be poor, to feel poorly, feel ill [Kaw]

 

treat the same, get even with

koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ kʰi-de (kk̨ze kǫ kąkʰde), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ kʰi-de (kk̨ze kąkʰde) - treat the same, get even with koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ a-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ką kʰide) - I, koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ da-kʰi-de (kk̨ze ką dkʰide) - you

cf. koⁿ-ze e-koⁿ (kk̨ze kǫ), koⁿ-ze e-kaⁿ (kk̨ze eką), koⁿ-ze a-kaⁿ (kk̨ze ką) - similar, alike; kʰi-de (kʰide) - cause to

Dhegiha: goⁿ-ze-goⁿ (goⁿ--goⁿ) - alike in appearance, similar, uniform [FL-Osage]; koⁿ-ze-koⁿ (kǫzkǫ) - be the same as or like another, like, similar to or identical to [CQ-Osage]; go-ze e-go (gze go) - alike, resembling something [Kaw]

 

treat with respect, honor someone

o-xta-xti (xtaxti) - honor someone, treat with respect

cf. o-xta (xta) - good, desirable; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully; o-xta-de (xtade) - like, love; xta-de (xtad) - love; xta-ki-de (xtkkide) - love ones own relative, kin

Dhegiha: u-xta (-qta) - good; excellent; desirable [JOD-Omaha]; u-xta (-xta) - marvelous, pleasing, mysterious, lovable, to prize highly, to hold a thing precious or valuable [FL-Osage]; o-xta (-xta) - a thing of great value, a captive, a favored person [FL-Osage]; o-xta (xta) - precious, dear or beloved, valuable, marvelous, important, special, right, respectable [CQ-osage]; o-xta (xta) - pleasing [Kaw]

Dhegiha: xti (qti), xchi (qchi) - very, really, real [Omaha/Ponca]; xti (xti) - very, really, real [Omaha]; xtsi (xtsi) - verily, very [FL-Osage]; xtsi (xci) - real, really, exactly, very, fully, indeed, precisely [CQ-Osage]; xtsi (xc) - real, very [Kaw]

 

treat, mistreat

di-shi-shi-ke (diike) - mistreat, abuse [MS]

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad

ex: ni-kaⁿ-saⁿ kdaⁿ-ni-ke wa-xo di-shi-shi-ke [wi]ʰpi-a-we (nikkąs̨ kdąnke waxʔ diike [wi]ʰpiwe) - sometime they treat a woman mean, thats the way they, they do, they say, they, all soldiers drunk then [MS]

 

di-si-si-ke (dissike) - mistreat, abuse bdi-si-si-ke (bdsisike) - I, ti-si-si-ke (ttsisike) - you

cf. i-si-si-ke (siske) - mistreat, abuse someone

ex: di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we) - they all abuse one as much and as often as they can [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ke ni-ka-shi-ka i-xa-xa taⁿ-da he-we di-si-si-ke hi-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-we (was ke nkkaka xaxa tt̨da hwe: dissike hnįh ̨w) - the black bears made fun of mankind, they were very cruel to mankind [JOD]

 

i-si-si-ke (siske) - mistreat, abuse someone

cf. di-si-si-ke (dissike) - mistreat, abuse

ex: i-di-si-si-ke (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - they abuse you [JOD]

ex: e-ti te na-ha i-di-si-si-ke hi ta-i e-de (tti tt nah idsisike hi ttai ed) - do not go there!, they will sure enough abuse you [JOD]

 

tree

hi (hi) - stalk, tree, bush, vine, leg

hi (hi) - stalk, trunk of tree [FS]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree

zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - tree, wood [MS, MR, AB]

zhoⁿ (jon) - tree (arbre) [GI]

zhaⁿ (ą) - tree, wood [FS]

zhoⁿ (zhⁿ) - wood, tree [ASG]

ex: zhaⁿ kʰe (̨ kʰe) - the log

ex: zhaⁿ tʰe (̨ tʰe) - the tree

ex: zhoⁿ ko-wa-da-te (ǫ kwadatt) - yon two trees

ex: zhoⁿ zhi-ka (̨ ika) - stick, switch

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - wood; a tree; trees [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - a tree; wood; fuel [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - tree, log, wood, lumber; stick, pole; woods, forest [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - wood, a tree or log [Kaw]

 

tree bark

zhoⁿ-ha (ǫh), zhaⁿ-ha (ąh) - bark of a tree

zhaⁿ-ha (zhaⁿh) - bark of tree [ASG]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿha) - bark, tree bark (on the tree) [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿ-ha) - the outer bark of a tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-ha (̨ą ha) - outer bark of a tree [CQ-Osage]

 

zhaⁿ-ha o-ska (ąh osk) - inner white bark of tree

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ha (ha) - skin, bark, hide, shell; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; ska (ska) - white

 

tree branch

zhaⁿ ka-xa (ą kxa) - branch of a tree

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ka-xa (kxa) - branch, branching as antlers or the tributaries of a river or branches of a tree

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ga-xa (zhⁿgaq) - a branch when on the tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ga-xa (zhoⁿgaxa) - tree branch, tree limb [Omaha]; zhoⁿ ga-xa (zhⁿ-ga-xa) - the limb of a tree; branches, boughs [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ka-xa (̨ą kxa) - tree branch, limb, tree branching out [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ga-xa (zhaⁿgaxá) - branch, limb of a tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ga-xa (gaq) - a branch of a tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-xa (gaxa) - branch [Omaha]; ga-xa (ga-xa) - branch of a river, tree, or antlers [FL-Osage]; ka-xa (kxa) - creek, branch of a stream or brook; branch of a tree, limb [CQ-Osage]; ga-xa (gax) - creek, a gorge or ravine [Kaw]

 

tree frog

taⁿ-na e-ka-xna (ttąn ekxna) - tree frog, lit. wife of the ground

cf. taⁿ-naⁿ (ttąn) - ground; i-ka-xnaⁿ (ikxną), e-ka-xnaⁿ (ekxną), i-ka-xnoⁿ (ikxnǫ) - wife, mans wife

 

tree root

zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨kką) - root

zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zh́ⁿkaⁿ) - root of tree [ASG]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkⁿ) - root, tree root [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-koⁿ (zhoⁿkoⁿ) - root [Omaha]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (jaⁿ-k͓ⁿ) - a root: the roots of trees, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ-ʰkoⁿ (zhoⁿ-ḳⁿ) - roots of any plant or tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (̨ kʔą) - root or roots (of a tree, bush, etc.) [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-kaⁿ (zháⁿkaⁿ) - root of a plant or tree [Kaw]

 

tree sap, maple sugar

zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap

zhoⁿ ni (jonnih) - rum, bourbon (rum) [GI]

zhoⁿ ni (jōn-nīh) - water of life, brandy (eau de vie) [GI]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ni (ni) - water, liquid; zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey; wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (jaⁿ-n) - wood water, wood sap, sugar; syrup; strained honey [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, candy, wood water [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar, tree liquid [Kaw]

 

tree stump

zhaⁿ paⁿ-haⁿ (̨ pp̨hą) - stump of a tree

cf. zhoⁿ (̨), zhaⁿ (ą) wood, tree

 

tree trunk

zhaⁿ o-taⁿ-ka (̨ ott̨ka) - tree trunk

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

 

tree, apple tree

kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree

kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree [MS]

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de hi (kⁿdehi) - plum bushes [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de hi (koⁿde hi) - plum tree [Omaha]; kaⁿ-de hi (k͓ndehi) - plum tree; plum bushes [JOD-Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ-dse xo-dse hi (ḳⁿ-dse xo-dse hi) - wild plum tree [FL-Osage]; kaⁿ-je hu (káⁿje hu) - plum tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: she-hi (chi) - apple tree [Omaha/Ponca]; she-hi (shhi) - apple tree [Omaha]; she-hi (sh-hi) - apple tree [FL-Osage]; she-taⁿ-ga hu (shétaⁿga hu) - apple tree [Kaw]

 

kaⁿ-te i-iⁿ-xe hi (kk̨tte įx hi) - apple tree

cf. kaⁿ-te i-iⁿ-xe (kk̨tte įxe) - apple; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

 

tree, ash tree

ta-shna hi (ttan̨hi) - ash tree, Fraxinus

cf. hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnge) - ash tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnⁿge) - ash tree [Omaha]

 

tree, cedar tree

xoⁿ-te hi (xǫtthi) - cedar tree

xoⁿ-te hi (xǫtthi) - cedar tree [MS]

cf. xoⁿ-te (xǫtt) - cedar wood; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

ex: xoⁿ-te hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. cedars abound in it; near Quapaw, OK

Dhegiha: xoⁿ-dse hi (xⁿ-dse hi) - the cedar tree [FL-Osage]; xoⁿ-tse hu (xǫǫchu) - cedar tree [CQ-Osage]; xoⁿ-je hu (xⁿje hu) - cedar tree, the red [Kaw]

 

tree, cottonwood tree

pa-xa (pxʔa) - cottonwood tree

pa-xa (pγʔa) - cottonwood tree [MS]

Dhegiha: ma-a (ma) - cottonwood, cottonwood tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ma-a (mahah) - cottonwood tree [Omaha]; ba-ʰka hi (b-ḳa hi) - cottonwood tree [FL-Osage]; pa-ka (pakʔa), pa-xa (paxa) - cottonwood [CQ-Osage]; bla-ka (blak) - cottonwood tree [Kaw]

 

tree, crooked tree

zhaⁿ a-ba-ko (ą bakko) - crooked tree

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; a-ba-ko (abakk) - crooked [JOD]; ba-ko (bakk) - bent

ex: zhaⁿ a-ba-ko (ą bakko) - tree/crooked [JOD]

ex: e-shaⁿ zhaⁿ a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ e-ti kʰe taⁿ a-te bde a-taⁿ maⁿ-shi miⁿ-kʰe (ą ą bakko kį tti kʰ tą tte bd[e]-ttą m̨i mįkʰ) - then, I climbed up high in this crooked tree and I sat there [JOD]

ex: zhaⁿ a-te, i-ya-we, a-ba-ko koi-shoⁿ maⁿ-shi kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe, i-ya-we (ą tte iywe, abakk kį mąi k̨-nįkʰ, iywe) - she climbed high up into a crooked tree and sat there, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ba-ku (b-k͓u) - hump-backed [JOD-Omaha]; ba-ʰko (b-ḳo) - bent [FL-Osage]

 

tree, dogwood bush or tree

maⁿ-sa hi (m̨sa h) - dogwood bush or tree, Cornus

cf. maⁿ (mą) - arrow; maⁿ-sa (m̨sa) - dogwood, Cornus; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg; maⁿ-sa zhi-te (msa tte) - dogwood, bark used for kinnikinnick

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa-xti hi (mⁿsaqtih) - the real arrow-shaft weed or bush: a weed whose stalk is used for making arrow-shafts [Osage/Quapaw]

moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrowwood, the Osage made their arrows out of a wood they call moⁿ-sa hi (mⁿ-a hi) - arrow wood (Cornus asperifolia), when this wood is not obtainable they use ash [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa hu (m̨ǫsa hu) - dogwood, arrow shaft tree [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa hu (mⁿsa hu) - dogwood, the arrow shaft bush [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-sa (mⁿsa) - a wooden arrow-shaft [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-sa (mⁿ-a) - arrow shaft [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-sa (m̨ǫsa), moⁿ-se (m̨ǫse), maⁿ-se (m̨ąse), maⁿ-si (m̨ąsi) - arrow shaft [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-sa (máⁿsa) - arrow shaft [Kaw]

 

tree, elm tree

e-hi (eh) - elm tree

cf. hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: e-hiu (-hiu) - an elm tree [FL-Osage]; e-hu (ehú) - elm [ Kaw]

Dhegiha: e-zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - an elm tree [Omaha/Ponca]; e-zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - elm tree; red elm tree [Omaha]

Dhegiha: e-e-zhoⁿ (ezhoⁿ) - an elm [Omaha/Ponca]

 

hiⁿ-te naⁿ-be hi (h̨tte n̨be hi) - slippery elm tree

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-dse gthi-gthi-e (hⁿ-dse gthi-gthi-e), hiⁿ-dse ni-stse-stse (hⁿ-dse ni-stse-stse), hiⁿ-dse ni-stsi-stu-e (hⁿ-dse ni-stsi-stu-e)  - slippery elm [FL-Osage]; hiⁿ-je shtsu-shtse (hⁿje shcshce) - slippery elm [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-de hi (hⁿdeh) - a bass-wood or linden tree [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-je hu (hⁿje hu) - elm tree, bass or linden [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hiⁿ-de (hⁿde) - the bass-wood or linden [Omaha/Ponca]; hiⁿ-je (hⁿje) - elm [Kaw]

 

tree, hawthorn bush or tree

po-hi (phi) - black hawthorn bush

cf. po (po) - black haws, hawthorn; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bo-hu (boh) - black hawthorn tree, it is gray, it resembles the staⁿyiⁿgehu (the persimmon tree) [Kaw]

Dhegiha: bo (bo) - black hawthorn [Kaw]

 

ti-o-spaⁿ-hi (ttispąhi) - red hawthorn bush or tree

cf. ti-o-spaⁿ (ttispą) - red haw; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-spoⁿ-hi (taspⁿhi) - red hawthorn, thorn-apple tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-spoⁿ hi (tapoⁿ hi) - red haw tree, torn apple tree [Omaha]; ta-spaⁿ hu (taspⁿ hu) - the red hawthorn tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta-spoⁿ (taspⁿ) - red haw, thorn apple [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-spoⁿ (ṭa-pⁿ) - the red haw, thorn apple [FL-Osage]; ta-spaⁿ (taspⁿ) - haws, red hawthorn [Kaw]

 

tree, hickory tree

poⁿ hi (ppǫh) - hickory tree

cf. poⁿ (ppǫ) - hickory nut; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ʰpoⁿ-ʰtoⁿ-a hi (p̣ⁿ-ṭoⁿ-a hi) - large hickory tree [FL-Osage]; paⁿ-taⁿ-ga hu (pⁿtⁿga hu) - hickory (tree), walnut (tree) [Kaw]

 

tree, hollow tree

zhaⁿ xdo-xa (ą xdxʔa) - hollow tree [JOD]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xdo-xa (xdoxʔa), kdo-xa (kdoxʔa) - empty; maⁿ-kdo-xa (mąkdxa), maⁿ-xdo-xa (mąxdoxʔa) - cave, hollow earth; di-kdo-xa (dikdxʔa), di-kto-xa (diktxʔa) - empty by pulling contents out

ex: zhaⁿ xdo-xa o-pʰe (ą xdxʔa opʰ) - he entered a hollow tree [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhoⁿqtha) - hollow log or tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhoⁿxthua) - wood barrel [Omaha]; zhoⁿ xthu-ʰka (zhⁿ-xthu-ḳa), zhoⁿ xthu-a (zhⁿ-xth-a) - a hollow tree [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: xthu-a (qthua) - hollow [Omaha/Ponca]; xthu-a (xthua) - hollow; empty [Omaha]; xthu-ʰka (xthu-ḳa), xthu-a (xth-a), xtho-ʰka (xth-ḳa) - hollow, any kind of hollow in a tree or log; empty, emptiness [FL-Osage]; xlo-ka (xlka) - hollow, empty [Kaw]

 

tree, ironwood tree

zhoⁿ ta-kaⁿ koⁿ (̨ ttakk̨ kǫ) - ironwood tree

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree;

Dhegiha: he-tʰa-zhoⁿ-tʰa (htʰazhⁿtʰa) - ironwood [Omaha/Ponca]; he-ta-zhoⁿ-ta (htazhoⁿta) - ironwood tree [Omaha]

 

tree, maple tree

we-sa-de hi (wsade h) - soft maple, black dye tree

cf. we (we) - that by which, with which to; sa-de (sde) - blacken, cause to be black; sa (sa) - black that is near, distinct; de (de) - cause to, to cause; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg; iⁿ-te sa-de (įtt sde) - to fast, lit. blacken the face; we-ska-de (wskade) - soap, whiten with it

Dhegiha: we-na-sha-be the hi (wnashabe the hi) - Maple Tree [Omaha]; we-sha-be-the hiu (w-sha-be-the-hiu) - maple sugar, the bark of this tree was used for making a black dye [FL-Osage]; we-tso sa-be hu (wco sbe hu) - sugar maple [Kaw]

 

zhoⁿ-ni hi (ǫn hi) - maple tree, Acer saccharum

cf. zhoⁿ ni (ǫn), zhaⁿ ni (ąn) - maple sugar, tree sap; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, syrup, honey; wood water, wood sap [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿni) - sap, candy, fudge, sugar [Omaha]; zhaⁿ ni (jaⁿ-n) - wood water, wood sap, sugar; syrup; strained honey [JOD-Omaha]; zhoⁿ ni (zhoⁿn) - sugar, candy, wood water [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (ąąni) - sugar, lit., tree water, originally referring to maple sap or syrup [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ ni (zhaⁿn) - sugar, tree liquid [Kaw]

 

tree, mulberry tree

zhaⁿ to-hi (ą ttohi) - mulberry tree [MS]

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-zi u-kʰe-thiⁿ (zoⁿz ukʰthiⁿ) - mulberry, common mulberry [Omaha/Ponca]; zoⁿ-zi (zoⁿz) - Moraceae, Osage Orange, mulberry [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-zi (zhoⁿi) - Osage Orange Tree, Mulberry Tree [Omaha]; zho ʰtoⁿ hi (zh-ṭoⁿ hi) - mulberry tree (Morus), known as Indian mulberry [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ da-da-ze (zhⁿ-da-da-e) - the mulberry tree (Morus), when this wood is used for fuel it makes a crackling sound [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ da-da-ze (zhⁿ dadze) - mulberry tree, used for making pipe stems [Kaw]

 

tree, oak tree

pi-de kde-ze hi (ppde kdze hi) - red oak, lit. striped tree

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; kde-ze (kdez) - striped; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

 

pi-de sha hi (ppde hi) - white oak, named for the color of its acorns

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-si sha-be hi (p̣i- sha-be hi) - the dark acorn tree [FL-Osage]

 

pi-de ste-te hi (ppde sttte hi) - water oak, lit. tall acorn tree

cf. pi-de (ppde) - acorn, acorns; ste-te (sttte) - tall, long; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: bu-de hi (bde hi) - red oak [Omaha]; ʰpi-si hi (p̣i- hi) - red oak tree (Quercus rubra) [FL-Osage]; ʰpi-su hu (ʰpishu) - oak, lit., acorn tree [CQ-Osage]; pu-su hu (pushu) - jack oak, a species that bears smallest acorns [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pi-si stse-dse (p̣i--stse-dse) - long acorn, acorn of the white oak [FL-Osage]; pi-si stse-dse hi (p̣i--stse-dse hi) - the long acorn tree [FL-Osage]

 

ta-shka hi (ttakhi) - burr oak, Quercus macrocarpa

cf. ta-shka (ttak) - acorn of the burr oak; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-shka hi (tshkahi) - white oak tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-shka ska hi  (ṭ-shka ka hi) - white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ʰta-shka hi (ṭ-shka hi) - buckeye (Aesculus), a kind of tea is made from this tree and taken just before a sweat bath to bring up bile, this is also the name given to the white oak tree [FL-Osage]; ta-shka hu (tshka hu) - the burr oak [Kaw]; ʰta-shka skiu-e hi  (ṭa-shk-kiu-e hi) - a sweet acorn tree, the oak family (Quercus alba) [FL-Osage]

 

zhaⁿ-ha di-sha-sha-ke hi (ąh dakehi) - blackjack oak, Q. marilandia

cf. zhoⁿ-ha (ǫh), zhaⁿ-ha (ąh) - bark of a tree; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿha) - bark, tree bark (on the tree) [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-ha (zhⁿ-ha) - the outer bark of a tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-ha (̨ą ha) - outer bark of a tree [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: thi-sha-sha-ge (thshashage) - wrinkle [Omaha]; bi-thi-sha-sha-ge (bithshashge) - to get the hair matted from lying down [Omaha/Ponca]

 

zhaⁿ sha (ǫ) - black oak, Q. velutina

zhaⁿ sha (ą ) - black tree [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; sha (a) - dark, indistinct black

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ sha-be hi (zhⁿ sha-be hi) - dark wood, the redbud or Judas tree (Cercis Canadensis) [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ sha-be hu (zhⁿ shabe hu) - redbud tree, lit. the dark wood tree [Kaw]

 

zhoⁿ xo-te (ǫ xtte) - post oak, Q. stellate

zhaⁿ xo-te (ą xtte) - gray tree [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xo-te (xtte) - gray

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ xu-dse (zhⁿ-xu-dse) - white oak [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ xu-dse (zhoⁿ x-dse) - gray oak tree (Quercus borealis), oak tree [FL-Osage]; zhoⁿ xo-dse hi (zhⁿ-xo-dse hi) - the gray tree, the post oak, this tree is sometimes known as the iron oak, but should not be confused with ironwood [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ xo-je hu (zhⁿ xoje h) - white oak tree, lit. gray wood tree, the white oak, it has a large trunk, about 2 1/2 ft. in diameter [Kaw]

 

tree, peach tree

koⁿ-te di-zho-de hi (kk̨tte dide hi) - free stone peach tree

cf. koⁿ-te di-zho-de (kk̨tte dide) - free stone peach; kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple [MS, OM]; di-zho-de (dide) - hull, peel; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de (kⁿde) - a plum, plums [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de (koⁿde) - plum [Omaha]; kaⁿ-de (k͓ⁿ-de) - a plum; plums [JOD-Omaha]; ʰko-dse (ḳⁿ-dse) - plums, any kind of fruit, as plums, peaches, apples, applied to fruit in general [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse (ʰk̨ące) - apple; fruit [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-je (kⁿje) - plum; fruit [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-zhu (thizhu) - shell [Omaha]; thi-zhu-e (th-zhu-e) - to hull, to take off the outer coating of grain, nuts, etc. [FL-Osage]; yu-zho-we (yuzhwe), yu-zhu-we (yuzhwe) - hull nuts with the hands, to remove the hull or skin of any object with the hands; to hull walnuts, beans, hazelnuts, etc. when green, with the hands [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg, tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, tooth, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

 

kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka hi (kkątt tt̨ka hi) - clingstone peach tree

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple [MS, OM]; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (kkątt tt̨ka) - clingstone peach; kaⁿ-te taⁿ-ka (konteh-tonkah) - peach (pche fruit) [GI]; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de (kⁿde) - a plum, plums [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de (koⁿde) - plum [Omaha]; kaⁿ-de (k͓ⁿ-de) - a plum; plums [JOD-Omaha]; ʰko-dse (ḳⁿ-dse) - plums, any kind of fruit, as plums, peaches, apples, applied to fruit in general [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse (ʰk̨ące) - apple; fruit [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-je (kⁿje) - plum; fruit [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - stalk, stem, trunk, leg, tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tree trunk, plant stalk, plant vine, tooth, leg [Omaha]; hi (hi), hiu (hiu) - trunk of a tree, vines, stalks of plants, a leg [FL-Osage]; hu (h), hiu (hi), hi (hi) - trunk, stalk, leg [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - trunk of a tree, vine, limb, leg [Kaw]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de hi (kⁿde hi) - plum bushes [Omaha/Ponca]; koⁿ-de hi (koⁿde hi) - plum tree [Omaha]; kaⁿ-je hu (káⁿje hu) - plum tree [Kaw]

 

tree, pecan tree

wa-ta-sto-ta hi (watstott hi) - pecan tree

wa-ta-sto-ta hi (watstott hi) - pecan tree [MS]

cf. wa-ta-sto-ta (watstotta) - pecan (nut); hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: wa-da-sto-sta (wa-d-to-ta hi), wa-ʰta-sto-sta (wa-ṭ-to-ta hiu) - pecan tree [FL-Osage]; wa-ta-sto-sta hu (watstostah) - pecan tree [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: wa-da-sto-sta (wa-d-to-ta) - pecan nuts [FL-Osage]; wa-ta-sto-sta (watstosta), wa-ta-sto-e (watstoe), wa-ta-shtsʰo-tsʰe (watčoče) - pecan nut [CQ-Osage]

 

tree, persimmon tree

shta-naⁿ hi (tan̨hi) - persimmon tree

cf. shta-naⁿ-ke (tan̨ke) - persimmon; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: sta-iⁿ-ge hi (ta-ⁿ-ge hi) - persimmon tree [FL-Osage]; staⁿ-yiⁿ-ge hu (stⁿyiⁿge hu) - persimmon tree [Kaw]

Dhegiha: sta-iⁿ-ge (ta-ⁿ-ge) - persimmon, this food was used for food by the Osage, when ripe it was gathered, the seeds taken out, then dried on a rack made of long woven saplings [FL-Osage]; wa-staⁿ-iⁿ-ke (wast̨įke), sta-hiⁿ-ke (staah̨ke) - persimmon [CQ-Osage]; staⁿ-yiⁿ-ge (stⁿyiⁿge) - persimmon [Kaw]

 

tree, pine tree

pa-saⁿ hi (pasąhi) - pine tree

cf. pa-saⁿ (psą), pa-soⁿ (psǫ), ba-soⁿ (bsǫ) - pine; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg; pa-saⁿ-ta (psątta) - pine bluff, Quapaw Agency, IT

Dhegiha: ba-zoⁿ hi (b-oⁿ hi) - pine tree, spruce tree, spruce or pine trees [FL-Osage]; ba-zaⁿ hu (bzaⁿhu) - pine tree [Kaw]

 

tree, redbud tree

zhoⁿ-xda zhi-te hi (̨xda tte hi) - redbud tree, Cercis canadensis

cf. zhaⁿ-xda zhi-te (ąxda tte) - red buds [JOD]; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; xta (xta), xda (xd) - blossom, bud; zhi-te (tte) - red; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-xtha (zhⁿ-xtha) - tree buds or blossoms [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ-la (̨ąʰlaa) - blossom or flower on a tree [CQ-Osage]

 

tree, spicewood tree

naⁿ-pe di-ta-ze hi (nąp dittze h) - spice bush, spicewood tree, lit. cracks across the grain

cf. di-ta-ze (dittze) - crackling sound, snapping; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: thi-da-ze (thidze) - to make the sound z+! once, as thunder does [Omaha/Ponca]

 

tree, sycamore tree

zhoⁿ saⁿ (̨ są) - sycamore, Platanus occidental

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; saⁿ (są) - white in the distance

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ soⁿ (zhoⁿsⁿ) - sycamore tree [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ soⁿ hi (zhoⁿ ⁿ hi) - sycamore, white tree [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ saⁿ (zháⁿ saⁿ) - sycamore tree [Kaw]

 

tree, to cut a tree or wood

zhaⁿ ka-ba-xe (ą kabγe) - to cut a tree or wood [MS]

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; ka-ba-xe (kabγe) - cut (a cord) in two

Dhegiha: ga-ba-xe (ga-ba-xe) - to break a string; to cut; demolisher [FL-Osage]

 

tree, walnut tree

ta-ke hi (ttak hi) - black walnut tree

cf. ta-ke (ttke) - black walnut; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: ta-ge hi (tgehi) - the black walnut tree, the Juglans nigra [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-ge hi (tage hi) - black walnut tree [Omaha]; ʰta-ge hi (ṭ-ge hi) - black walnut tree [FL-Osage]; ta-gu hu (tágu hu) - black walnut tree [Kaw]

 

tree, willow tree

di-xe hi (dγe hi) - willow tree

cf. di-xe (dγe) - willow; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg

Dhegiha: thi-xe (thxe) - a willow [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-xe (thxe) - willow [Omaha]; thiu-xe (thi-xe), thu-xe (th-xe), tho-xe (th-xe) - willow tree [FL-Osage]; yu-ghe (yúghe) - willow [Kaw]

 

trees abound, forest

zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest, trees abound

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-taⁿ (ott̨), o-taⁿ (ott̨) - abound; o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; taⁿ (ttą), toⁿ (ttǫ) - possess, have

Dhegiha: tʰaⁿ (tⁿ) - abound, abounds, to abound; there is; to possess [JOD-Omaha]; tʰoⁿ (tʰoⁿ) - to exist, there is/there are; to abound; to have or possess [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ (ṭoⁿ) - to possess [FL-Osage]; toⁿ (toⁿ) - have, possess [Kaw]; taⁿ-daⁿ (táⁿdaⁿ) - midwinter, when things abound [Kaw]

 

trees in a curvilinear clump

zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; o-shpe (op) - fragment

Dhegiha: u-shpe (u-shp) - a fragment [FL-Osage]; o-shpe zhiⁿ (opį) - fragment, small piece, chip, bit, bits and baubles, ones small things, change left over after a purchase, coins, small change, pennies [CQ-Osage]

 

trees in scattered clumps

zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (ą ott̨ oppa), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpa-shpa (̨ ott̨ oppa) - trees in scattered clumps

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; zhoⁿ o-toⁿ (̨ ott̨), zhaⁿ o-ta (̨ ott) - forest; zhaⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (ą ott̨ op), zhoⁿ o-toⁿ o-shpe (̨ ott̨ op) - trees in a curvilinear clump; xoⁿ-te-hi o-taⁿ (xǫtthi ott̨) - Rock Creek, I.T.; lit. cedars abound in it; near Quapaw, OK; o-shpe (op) - fragment; ka-shpe (kap) - cut off, knock off a piece

Dhegiha: shpa-shpa (shpashpa) - fragment [Omaha]; u-shpa-shpa (ushpshpa) - piece, remnant [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-shpa-shpa (b-shpa-shpa) - to cut an apple or potato into many pieces with a knife [FL-Osage]; ga-shpa-shpa (gashpshpa) - chip off many pieces [Kaw]

 

trees, bottom land with trees

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

cf. o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber; o-zo taⁿ-ga (oz tⁿga) - extensive bottom land, abounding in timber [Kaw]

 

trees, highland covered with trees

di-xa-zhi (dixi) - highland covered with trees, also hill

ex: di-xa-zhi miⁿ e-ti-kʰe d (dixi mį ett-kʰe d) - a hill is truly there [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ di-xa-zhi niⁿ-kʰe shte-ke naⁿ, i-ya (ę dixi nįkʰ tke ną, iy) - then the hill split in two, it is said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we (dixi wadxowe) - hill that ate people from Quapaw mythology

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we miⁿ e-ti-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya (dixi wadxowe mį ett-kʰe ną, iy) - there was a Hill that drew things (people) into its mouth, it is said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti hi-naⁿ, di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we i-ba-hoⁿ naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke tti h-ną, dixi wadxow bahǫ n̨, iy) - when Rabbit arrived there, hill that draws things (people) into its mouth knew him, it is said [JOD]

ex: di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we ni-kʰe, aⁿ-da-xo-wa! (dixi wadxow nikʰ, ądxow!) - you are the hill that draws things (people) into its mouth, draw me in! [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-kaⁿ-e! di-xa-zhi wa-da-xo-we niⁿ-kʰe te-a-de e-de, i-yi i-ya (įkk̨-e! dixi wadxow nįkʰ tʔed ed, iy iy) - o my grandmother! I have truly killed the Hill that draws things (people) into its mouth! it is said he said [JOD]

 

tremble

di-bdi-bdi-xe (dibdbdiγe) - tremble all over

Dhegiha: thi-bthi-bthi-xe (thibthbthixe) - to tremble all over [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-bthu-bthu-xe (thi-bth-bthu-xe) - to tremble or shake with fear; to shudder with cold [FL-Osage]; thi-bru-bru-xe (ibrbruγe) - shake; quiver; tremble [CQ-Osage]

 

di-ka-ka (dikkkka) - tremble, shake

 

 

 

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