English to Quapaw Dictionary

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources

 

T

 

toe

si-po-za (sippza) - toe

si-po-za (sippza) - toes [MS]

Dhegiha: si-pa (sip) - toes, foot head [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa (i-p) - toes [FL-Osage]; si-pa u-za-be (i-p-u-a-be) - the toes [FL-Osage]; si-ʰpo (siiʰp) - toe [CQ-Osage]; si-po (sip) - toe [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-za-be (ube) - fingers [Omaha]; sha-ge u-za-be (sh-ge u-a-be) - fingers [FL-Osage]; o-za-be (ozábe) - digits, fingers and toes [Kaw]

 

toe, big toe

si-po-za taⁿ-ka (sippza tt̨ka) - toe, big toe

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; taⁿ-ka (tt̨ka) - big, large

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi u-toⁿ-ga (siphi utⁿga) - the great toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa-hi u-toⁿ-ga (iphi utoⁿga) - great toe [Omaha]; si-ʰpa u-ʰtoⁿ-ga (i-p u-ṭoⁿ-ga) - big toe [FL-Osage]; si-po ʰtaⁿ (siiʰpʰtą) - big toe [CQ-Osage]; si-po-taⁿ-ga che (sipótaⁿga che) - the big toe [Kaw]

 

si-po-za wa-sha-ke hi (sippza waʔke hi) - big toe [MS]

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; wa-sha-ke (waʔke) - large, be large; hi (hi) - very

 

toe, fourth toe

si-po-za zhi-ka o-ba-taⁿ (sippza ka obttą) - fourth toe, next to the little toe

cf. si-po-za zhi-ka (sippza ka) - little toe; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe; hi o-ta-ho-kde o-ba-taⁿ (h ottahokd obttą) - teeth, bicuspid

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi u-thi-zoⁿ u-thu-a-tʰoⁿ (siphi uthzoⁿ uthatʰoⁿ) - fourth toe, toe next to the middle toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa-hi u-a-zhiⁿ-ga u-thu-a-toⁿ (iphi uazhiⁿga uthuatoⁿ) - fourth toe [Omaha]

 

toe, little toe

si-po-za zhi-ka (sippza ka) - little toe

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; zhi-ka (ka) - little, small; si-po-za zhi-ka o-ba-taⁿ (sippza ka obttą) - fourth toe, next to the little toe

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi u-zhiⁿ-ga (siphi u-zhⁿga) - little toe [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa-hi u-a-zhiⁿ-ga (iphi uazhiⁿ-ga) - little toe [Omaha]; si-po-hiⁿ-ga (siphiⁿga) - little toe [Kaw]

 

toe, middle or third toe

si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

Dhegiha: si-po-kaⁿ-ska (sipókaⁿska) - middle toe [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si-pa (sip) - the toes [Omaha/Ponca]; si-ʰpa (i-p) - toes [FL-Osage]; si-ʰpa u-za-be (i-p-u-a-be) - the toes [FL-Osage]; si-ʰpo (siiʰp) - toe [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-kʰoⁿ-ska (ukʰⁿska) - half [Omaha/Ponca]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

toe, second toe

si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ o-ba-taⁿ (sippzosk̨ską obttą) - second toe, next to the middle toe

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; o-skaⁿ-ska (oskąsk) - half in length, middle; o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next; si-po-zo-skaⁿ-skaⁿ (sippzosk̨ską) - middle or third toe

Dhegiha: si-pa (sip) - toes, foot head [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa (i-p) - toes [FL-Osage]; si-pa u-za-be (i-p-u-a-be) - the toes [FL-Osage]; si-ʰpo (siiʰp) - toe [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: o-skoⁿ-ska (o-kⁿ ka), u-skoⁿ-ska (u-kⁿ-ka) - center, directly in the center of, in the middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkoⁿ-ska (o-ḳⁿ-ka), u-ʰkoⁿ-ska (u-ḳⁿ-ka) - the center, middle [FL-Osage]; o-ʰkaⁿ-ska (oʰką́ska) - in the center, middle, at the halfway point [CQ-Osage]; o-kaⁿ-ska (okⁿska) - one half in length or quantity, the middle one, in the middle, a half dollar, fifty cents [Kaw]

 

toenail

si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nail(s)

si-pa sha-ke (sipp ke) - toe nail [MS]

cf. si-po-za (sippza) - toe; sha-ke (ke) - claw, talon, hoof

Dhegiha: si-pa-hi sha-ge (siphi shge) - toenails [Omaha/Ponca]; si-pa sha-ge-ha (sip shgeha) - toenail [Kaw]

Dhegiha: si-pa-ha (i-p̣-ha) - toenail [FL-Osage]; si-pa-ha (sipha) - toenail [Kaw]

 

toes turned out, splayfooted

si o-bda-koⁿ (si bdakʔǫ) - splayfooted, toes turned out si o-a-bda-koⁿ (si abdakʔǫ) - I, si o-da-bda-koⁿ (si dabdakʔǫ) - you

cf. si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: si btha-ʰka (i btha-ḳa) - web-footed [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: btha (btha) - to open, to spread out; to be opened or spread out [Omaha/Ponca]; bla (bla) - spread out, as dishes on the table [Kaw]

Dhegiha: btha-ʰka (bth-ḳa) - flat board [FL-Osage]; bra-ka (brkʔa) - flat [CQ-Osage]; bla-ka (blka) - flat on the surface, as boards [Kaw]

 

together, altogether

a-ta-pa-xti (ttappxti) - altogether [JOD]

cf. a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too, great, exceeding; often, always [JOD]; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; a-ta-pa-xti (ttappaxt) - off and on, at regular intervals

ex: mi-zhi-ka ho-taⁿ a-ta-pa-xti kaⁿ-iⁿ tʰe ki-de (miik httą ttappaxti k̨į tʰ kid) - so she was dressed as a very pretty girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa-xti (tʰaqti) - very much more than; far beyond [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-doⁿ a-tʰa (doⁿ tʰa) - more than good, better [JOD-Omaha]; a-tʰa-ta (tʰata) - in succession, one beyond another [Omaha/Ponca]

 

a-ta-ha-we (attahwe) - altogether (plural) [JOD]

cf. a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always; we (-we), a-we (-awe), wi (-wi), a-wi (-awi), a-i (-ai) - pluralizer

ex: iⁿ-ta-xo-we a-ta-ha-we, i-yi (̨ttaxowe attahwe, iy) - he said, youall told a great lie (JOD)]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

 

together, boiled or cooked together

o-do-ki-hoⁿ (odkihǫ) - boiled or cooked together

cf. o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

ex: te naⁿ-ka o-we sa-ki o-do-ki-hoⁿ (tte n̨kka ̨ we ski odkih̨) - buffalo back fat and dried corn boiled/cooked together [JOD]

ex: wa-sa zho o-we sa-ki wa-bdo-ka o-do-ki-hoⁿ (was we ski wabdka odkihǫ) - black bear meat and whole ear of dried corn boiled/cooked together [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-thu-ʰki-hoⁿ (u-th-ḳi-hoⁿ) - two kinds of food boiled or cooked together [FL-Osage]; o-tho-ki-haⁿ (oʰkihą) - add in cooking; cook together [CQ-Osage]; o-yo-ki-haⁿ (oyókihàⁿ) - boil together in something, cook things together [Kaw]

 

o-ki-hoⁿ-i (okhǫi) - it was boiled together [JOD]

cf. o-hoⁿ (ohǫ) - cook, boil

Dhegiha: u-ki-hoⁿ (kihoⁿ) - to boil several things at once or together, for himself alone [Omaha/Ponca]

 

together, crowding together upon one another

a-ki-kniⁿ-xti (kkikn̨xti) - in a great crowd, crowding together upon one another, sitting upon one another

cf. a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; a-ki-kniⁿ (akkniⁿ) - to sit on ones own [JOD]; xti (-xti) - very, real, fully

ex: a-ki-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ti hi-we i-ya (kkikn̨xti tt tʰtti hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-gthiⁿ (-ḳi-gthiⁿ) - to sit upon one another [FL-Osage]; a-gi-liⁿ (giliⁿ) - sit on ones own [Kaw]

 

together, in one place

miⁿ-taⁿ (m̨tą) - together, in one place

cf. di-miⁿ-taⁿ dimįt̨) - place several objects together

ex: miⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-haⁿ to-wa-i (m̨tą nąh̨ twa) - the four of them grew up together [JOD]

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-daⁿ (wⁿ-daⁿ) - in one place together, refers to two things [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-daⁿ-the (wⁿ-daⁿ-ĕ) - to put things together in one place [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-doⁿ (wiⁿdoⁿ) - unite, both together [Omaha]; gi-wiⁿ-doⁿ (gi-wⁿ-doⁿ) - to reconcile, to come together, to reunite as a family or friends, reconciliation [FL-Osage]

 

together, mix together

i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (kkidbną) - mixed, mixed together

cf. di-i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (dikkidbną) - mix together

Dhegiha: i-kʰi-thi-bthoⁿ (kʰithbthoⁿ) - to mingle together, mix [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰki-thi-bthoⁿ (-ḳi-thi-bthoⁿ) - to mix together, intermixing, to mix things that are unlike [FL-Osage]

 

di-i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (dikkidbną) - mix together bdi-i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (bdikkidibną) - I, ti-i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (ttikkidibną) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; i-ki-di-bnaⁿ (kkidbną) - mixed, mixed together

Dhegiha: thi-i-kʰi-thi-bthoⁿ (thikʰithbthoⁿ) - to mix together with the hands [Omaha/Ponca]

 

i-ki-kda-hi (kkikdhi) - mixed

cf. di-i-ki-kda-hi (dikkikdhi) - mix with the hands; i-ka-hi (kahi) - mixed with, to mix ingredients

Dhegiha: i-kʰi-gtha-hi (kʰigthhi) - to mix together [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰki-gtha-hi (-ḳi-gtha-hi) - to mix, to mix together as beans and corn [FL-Osage]

 

di-i-ki-kda-hi (dikkikdhi) - mix with the hands bdi-i-ki-kda-hi (bdikkikdahi) - I, ti-i-ki-kda-hi (ttikkikdahi) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; i-ki-kda-hi (kkikdhi) - mixed

Dhegiha: i-kʰi-gtha-hi (kʰigthhi) - to mix together [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ʰki-gtha-hi (-ḳi-gtha-hi) - to mix, to mix together as beans and corn [FL-Osage]

 

i-ka-hi (kahi) - mixed with, to mix ingredients i-da-ka-hi (idkahi) - I, i-da-ka-hi (dakhi) - you [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke i-da-ka-hi (hǫbn̨ke idkahi) - I mixed it (bread) with beans [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke i-ka-hi (hǫbn̨ke kahi) - mixed with beans [JOD]

ex: i-ka-hi-xti (ikahixti) - fully mixed with [JOD]

ex: wa-tʰaⁿ-ze a-hoⁿ di-shiⁿ hoⁿ-bniⁿ-ke i-ka-hi (watʰ̨ze hǫ dį hǫbn̨ke kahi) - cornbread mixed with beans [JOD]

ex: ta-ni-ka-hi (tankahi) - sumac, lit. mix with tobacco

ex: o-do-ka-hi (odokhi) - to stir, to stir up, to paddle

ex: pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

Dhegiha: i-ga-hi (gahi) - to mix, stir up together, as pounded turnips and grease; to move back and forth, as a hoe in mixing mortar; to mix or mingle, as two liquids sometimes do; mixed: hence, together with [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ga-hi (gahi) - blanch, mix [Omaha]; i-ga-hi (-ga-hi) - the mixing of several ingredients [FL-Osage]; i-ga-hi (gahi) - mix together, mixed with [Kaw]

 

together, next to one another

o-ki-ba-taⁿ (okkbattą) - together, next to one another

cf. o-ba-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - next; a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned

ex: o-ki-ba-taⁿ kniⁿ (okkbattą knį) - to sit on together

ex: o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ (okkbatt̨ttą) - one after another, several in a row or series [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-a-wa-tʰoⁿ (ukʰiwatʰoⁿ) - one after another: said of but two objects [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-kʰi-a-wa-tʰoⁿ-tʰoⁿ (ukʰiwatʰoⁿtʰⁿ) - one after another; in succession; in an extended line or series [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ʰki-a toⁿ-toⁿ (u-ḳi- toⁿ-toⁿ) - a series, consecutive, one following the other [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-wa-taⁿ (u-w-taⁿ) - the next [JOD-Omaha]; u-wa-tʰoⁿ (uwtʰoⁿ) - next [Omaha/Ponca]; u-wa-ʰtoⁿ (u-w-ṭoⁿ) - next in order or line; the next time, place or rank [FL-Osage]; o-txaⁿ (otx̨), o-kxaⁿ (okx̨) - next, following, the following one [CQ-Osage]; o-wa-khaⁿ (owkhaⁿ) - next of kin [Kaw]

 

together, place several objects together

di-miⁿ-taⁿ (dimįt̨) - place several objects together bdi-miⁿ-taⁿ (bdmįtą) - I, ti-miⁿ-taⁿ (ttmįtą) - you

cf. miⁿ-taⁿ (m̨tą) - together, in one place

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-daⁿ (wⁿ-daⁿ) - in one place together, refers to two things [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-daⁿ-the (wⁿ-daⁿ-ĕ) - to put things together in one place [JOD-Omaha]; wiⁿ-doⁿ (wiⁿdoⁿ) - unite, both together [Omaha]; gi-wiⁿ-doⁿ (gi-wⁿ-doⁿ) - to reconcile, to come together, to reunite as a family or friends, reconciliation [FL-Osage]

 

together, push together

a-ba-taⁿ (battą) - push together, as firebrands when the ends next to the fire are burned a-pa-taⁿ (ppattą) - I, a-shpa-taⁿ (pattą) - you, oⁿ-ka-pa-taⁿ-we (ǫkpattąwe) - we

cf. a-ba-taⁿ-de da (battąde da) - push away! push it! [MS]; ba-taⁿ de-de (batt̨ ded) - push and send off [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-ba-doⁿ (-ba-doⁿ) - to freshen a fire by putting on wood [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: pa-doⁿ (padoⁿ), ba-doⁿ (badoⁿ) - push [Omaha]; ba-daⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push or pole a boat along, i.e., by pushing with a pole or oar against the bank or bottom of a stream; to push a sled from behind [JOD-Omaha]; ba-doⁿ (ba-dⁿ) - to push [FL-Osage]; ba-daⁿ (badⁿ) - push, push away, push off, shove over [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ba-daⁿ the-the (ba-dⁿ -ĕ) - to push off a boat, said of the act of one std. on the shore, not on the boat [JOD-Omaha]; ba-daⁿ ye-ye (badⁿ yye) - to push a boat off, said of one standing on the bank or shore [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰki-ʰpa-doⁿ (ḳi-p̣-doⁿ) - to push oneself along as in a boat [FL-Osage]; ki-pa-daⁿ (kipdaⁿ) - push oneself along in a boat; push off ones boat while sitting in it [Kaw]

 

together, sew two things together

a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across a-a-ki-pa-tʰe (akkppatʰe) - I, a-da-ki-shpa-tʰe (dakkpatʰe) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-pa-tʰa-we (ǫkkkipatʰawe) - we

cf. ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew; a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on; ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sew ones own; o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together; wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha (wabtʰ iha) - sewing bag

Dhegiha: a-kʰi-pʰa-tʰe (kʰipʰtʰe) - to sew across; to sew two things together [Omaha/Ponca]

 

together, sewed together

o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together

cf. ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew; a-ba-tʰe (batʰe) - to sew on; ki-pa-tʰe (kipptʰe) - sew ones own; a-ki-pa-tʰe (kkipatʰ) - sew two things together, sew across; wa-ba-tʰe o-zhi-ha (wabtʰ iha) - sewing bag

ex: o-ki-pa-tʰe (okkppatʰe) - sewed together [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ wa-zhiⁿ-ka ha o-ki-pa-tʰe zho-i-ka bdo-ka hi we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ i-ya (ę wąka ha okkppatʰe oka bdka hi wnįtʰ̨ ną iy) - and then he clothed his entire body, sewing bird skins together, it is said [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-ki-pa-te (u-k-p͓a-tĕ) - to sew together [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: ba-tʰe (batʰ) - sew [Omaha/Ponca]; ba-tse (ba-ts) - to sew; sew with a needle [FL-Osage]; pa-tsʰe (paacʰ) - sew [CQ-Osage]; ba-che (baché) - sew [Kaw]

 

together, side by side, parrallel

sa-ki-a (ski) - side by side [JOD]

ex: ni-ti ki naⁿ zha-we to-ka naⁿ-pa sa-ki-a ni-kʰa (ntti k ną we tka nąp ski nikʰa) - when he arrived at the water, there were two male beavers side by side [JOD]

Dhegiha: sa-kʰi-ba (sakʰba) - together, beside, parallel, both together [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-ki-ba (sa-k-ba) - both together; beside; parallel with [JOD-Omaha]; sa-kʰi-ba (-ḳ-ba) - side by side, parallel [FL-Osage]; sa-ki-ba (sakba), sa-ki-wa (sgiwa) - parallel, side by side, together [Kaw]

 

together, sit close together

a-da-ska kniⁿ (daska kn̨) - sit close together a-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (bdaska akn̨) - I, a-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (ttaska dakn̨) - you

cf. a-da-ska (daska) - stick, adhere, as pitch, mud or snow; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; a-da-ska i-naⁿ-de (daska in̨de) - place something, e.g. paper, in order to make it stick

ex: a-wi-bda-ska a-kniⁿ (wibdaska kn̨) - I sit close to you

ex: aⁿ-ta-ska da-kniⁿ (̨ttaska dakn̨) - you sit close to me

ex: a-di-da-ska kniⁿ (didaska kn̨) - he sits close to you

Dhegiha: a-tha-ska-be (thaskabe) - to stick to, to adhere to, as mucilage, (said of one object) [Omaha/Ponca]; a-tha-ska-be-the (thaskbethe) - to cause to adhere; to seal [Omaha/Ponca]; we-a-tha-ska-ba-the (weatha ka bathe) - paste; glue; adhesive tape [Omaha]

 

together, sit together or with one another

o-ki-kniⁿ (okkknį) - sit together, with one another

cf. o-ki-kniⁿ (okiknį) - to sit in ones own [JOD]; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in; o-hi-kniⁿ (ohknį) - to get into and sit [JOD]; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; ki-kniⁿ (kknį) - sit with reference to another; a-kniⁿ (akn̨) - sit on; and numerals in the teens; a-kniⁿ (knį) - chair, seat; a-kʰi-kniⁿ (akʰknį) - return home there and stay

Dhegiha: u-gthiⁿ (ugthⁿ) - sit in, to sit in something, seat, place to sit [Omaha/Ponca]; u-gthiⁿ (ugthiⁿ) - ride [Omaha]; u-gthiⁿ (-gthiⁿ) - to occupy a seat, to dwell in [FL-Osage]; o-liⁿ (ol̨į) - live in or at, dwell in, inhabit, live within metaphorically, ride, ride in, sit in, occupy (a seat), be seated on, sit down on, take a seat on [CQ-Osage]; o-liⁿ (olⁿ) - dwell, live in a place, sit in a place, stay in a place [Kaw]

Dhegiha: gthiⁿ (gⁿ) - sit, dwell [JOD-Omaha]; gthiⁿ (gthiⁿ) - to sit [FL-Osage]; liⁿ (l̨į) - sit [CQ-Osage]; liⁿ (liⁿ), gliⁿ (glⁿ) - sit, stay, remain, dwell, live, reside, continue [Kaw]

 

together, to live together in same tent

ti-kde (ttikd) - to live together in same tent; to set up housekeeping; village, collection of lodges ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde shiⁿ wa-pa-xe naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde ̨ wappγe ną) - the four women that live together, I made them fat [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną iy) - rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ (waxʔ twa ttkde nikʰ ną) - four women were dwelling in a lodge [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ha-ki i-da-we, i-he (waxʔ twa ttkde hak idwe, ih) - where have the four women that live together gone too, I say [JOD]

ex: wa-xo to-wa ti-kde ha-ki i-da-we, i-ke (waxʔ twa ttkde hak idwe, ik) - where have the four women that live together gone too? he said to her [JOD]

ex: wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke (wa-xti kikde ttkde k) - very rich/with his/dwelt/the std. an. objects [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke naⁿ, i-ya (kį wa-xti kikde ttkde k ną, iy) - and then they lived very prosperously together, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti-kda-wi (ttkdawi) - they dwelt in a lodge [JOD]

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD)]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside; to dwell; to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside; make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping; house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

together, with

zho-kde (okd) - with, be with someone zho-a-kde (okde) - I, zho-da-kde (dakde) - you

ex: zho-wi-kde (wikde) - I with you

ex: zho-aⁿ-da-kde (ǫdakde) - you with me

ex: zho-di-kde (dikde) - he or she with you

ex: zho-kde (kde) - with him [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ti tʰe-ti zho-kde kʰi (kįttą tt tʰett kde kʰ) - then he arrived at the lodge with him [JOD]

ex: de naⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ zho-kde de, i-ya (de ną mat̨ke nį okd de, iy) - he departed, accompanied by the Rabbit, it is said [JOD]

ex: wa-xo zhi-ka niⁿ zho-kde e-ti hi naⁿ (waxʔik nį kde tti h ną) - the old woman accompanied him as he went there [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu-gthe (zhgthe) - with: to be with him [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-gthe (zhgthe) - companion [Omaha]; zho-gthe (zh-gthe) - to accompany; to go with someone [FL-Osage]; zho-le (le) - marry, accompany, go with, come with, date, be in a courtship with (lit., be with); with (often glossed and in English) [CQ-Osage]; zho-le (zhóle) - with, to be with [Kaw]

 

zho-ki-kde (kikde) - he with his own; with his; he with her, his own [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ wa-she-xti zho-ki-kde ti-kde ke naⁿ, i-ya (kį wa-xti kikde ttkde k ną, iy) - and then they lived very prosperously together, it is said [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe zho-ki-kde naⁿ, i-ya (ę mat̨ke ek̨ nįkʰ kikde ną, iy) - at that time Rabbit was with his grandmother, it is said [JOD]

ex: zho-ki-kde kda-wi (kikde kdwi) - together, they went home [JOD]

ex: wa-xo ni-ka zho-ki-kde ta-bde da-we (waxʔ nikk kikde tbde dwe) - a man went hunting with his woman/wife [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu-gi-gthe (zhgigthe) - with his or her own; to be or go with his or her own [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-kʰi-gthe (zhkʰigthe) - to be or go with each other [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-ki-gthe (zhkigthe) - to be or go by himself [Omaha/Ponca]; zhu-ki-gthe (zhukigthe) - unite [Omaha]; zhu-ʰki-gthe (zhu-ḳi-gthe) - together [FL-Osage]; zhu-gi-gthe (zhu-gi-gthe) - with his [FL-Osage]; zho-ʰki-le (ʰkile) - be with each other [CQ-Osage]; zho-ki-le (kile) - be with ones own people [CQ-Osage]

 

zho-wa-ki-kde (wakkde) - to be or go with them, ones friends or family

ex: zho-wa-ki-kde (wakkde) - she with them, her own [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ naⁿ-zha wa-xo zhi-ka shi-zhi-ka zho-wa-ki-kde wa-kda-niⁿ hi taⁿ a-di-xe (kįttą n̨a waxʔ ik nįkʰ ika wakkde wkdanį h tą adiγ) - and then the old woman married him, she took her children along with her [JOD]

Dhegiha: zhu-wa-gi-gthe (zhwaggthe) - to be or go with them, his friends or kindred [Omaha/Ponca]

 

toilet

o-te-zhe ti (ote tti) - toilet, compiled from Dhegiha cognates

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; te-zhe (te) - urinate; ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

Dhegiha: u-ne-zhe ti (unzhe ti) - toilet; outdoor toilet [Omaha]; o-tse-zhe ʰtsi (oceʰci) - bathroom, toilet room, john, water closet (w.c.), outhouse [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: ne-zhe (nezhe) - urinate [Omaha]; ne-zhe (nje) - to urinate; urine [JOD-Omaha]; ʰtse-zhe (ṭs-zhe) - to urinate [FL-Osage]; tse-zhe (ce) - urinate [CQ-Osage]; je-zhe (jzhe) - urinate [Kaw]

 

o-zhe ti (o tti) - toilet, compiled from Dhegiha cognates

cf. o (o) - locative, place at which, at a place, culmination of a certain action or state, wherein a certain thing takes place; in, inside, into; zhe (e) - to have a bowel movement; ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling

Dhegiha: u-zhe ti (uzhe ti) - latrine; outdoor toilet [Omaha]; o-zhe ʰtsi (oʰci) - bathroom, toilet room, john, w.c., outhouse [CQ-Osage]; o-zhe tsi (ozhéci) - toilet [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhe (zhe) - bowel movement, excrement, to have a bowel movement [Omaha/Ponca]; zhe () - defecate, have a bowl movement, be excreted, ooze, be emitted, excrete, emit [CQ-Osage]; zhe (zhe) - to have a bowel movement [Kaw]

 

toilet paper

ni-te ka-zhi (ntte ki), ni-te ga-zhi (ntte gi) - toilet paper

cf. ni-te (ntte), niⁿ-te (n̨tte) - buttocks, rear [MS, OM]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-de (nnde) - rump, hams [JOD-Omaha]; ni-dse (n-dse) - haunch; body; the lower part of the back; the hips; rump [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: ga-di (gad) - to wipe after stooling (by scraping with a stick or corn cob); to scrape off, as snow, with a hoe or ax; to paw away the snow, as horses do [Omaha/Ponca]; ka-tsi (kaac) - wipe (any surface), raking, or shoveling; wipe clean (after using the toilet)

 

tomahawk pipe

iⁿ-spe ta-ni-ba (mǐspǐ na nǐ bŭ) - tomahawk, from Francis Good Eagle [MH]

cf. iⁿ-spe (̨spe) - axe; ta-ni-pa (tanba) - pipe

Dhegiha: naⁿ-ni-a-ba (naⁿ níaba) - tomahawk, ax [Kaw]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze pe (moⁿe pe) - ax [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mⁿ-hiⁿ-pe) - ax [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mą́ąhįspe) - axe [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mⁿhiⁿspe) - axe [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ni-ni-ba (ninba) - pipe [JOD-Omaha]; noⁿ-ni-oⁿ-ba (nⁿ-ni-oⁿ-ba) - a pipe [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-niⁿ-oⁿ-pa (nąn̨ǫpa) - pipe, smoke [CQ-Osage]; na-noⁿ-ba (nanⁿba), naⁿ-noⁿ-ba (naⁿnⁿba), noⁿ-noⁿ-ba (nⁿnoⁿba), na-nu-oⁿ-ba (nnuⁿba), noⁿ-nu-oⁿ-ba (nⁿnuⁿba) - pipe [Kaw]

 

tomahawk, hatchet

iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet, tomahawk [MS]

iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet

iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (mĭspeh jinkah) - war club, head broker (casse tte) [GI]

cf. iⁿ-spe (̨spe) - axe; zhi-ka (ka) - little, small

ex: maⁿ-te kaⁿ-de ka-ba-xe i-ya-we, iⁿ-spe zhi-ka e i-oⁿ ka-ba-xe i-ya-we (mątt-kkąde kabγe iywe, ̨spe ik į kabγe iywe) - she chopped the canoe string/rope in two, they say, using the hatchet she chopped the string/rope in two, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze pe zhiⁿ-ga (moⁿe pe zhiⁿga) - hatchet, tomahawk [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ spe zhiⁿ-ga (mⁿ-hiⁿ-pe zhiⁿ-ga) - tomahawk [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe zhiⁿ (mą́ąhįspeį) - hatchet [CQ-Osage]

 

tomato

ma-kaⁿ zhi-te (makk̨ tte) - tomato [MS, OM]

cf. ma-kaⁿ (makk̨) - medicine; zhi-te (tte) - red

Dhegha: wa-zhi-de (wazhide) - tomato; tomato ketchup [Omaha]; ʰkaⁿ-tse zhu-tse (ʰk̨ące uce), ʰkaⁿ-tse zhu-e (ʰk̨ące e) - tomato [CQ-Osage]

 

tomorrow

ka-sa-ni (kasni), ka-saⁿ-niⁿ (kas̨nį) - tomorrow

ka-saⁿ-niⁿ (kas̨nį), ka-sa-ni (kasni) - tomorrow [MS, AG, OM]

cf. saⁿ (są) - white in the distance; ka-sa-ni-a-ti (ksaniti) - morning; ka-saⁿ-ti (ksątt), ka-soⁿ-te (kas̨tte) - this morning; ka-soⁿ-ti (kas̨tt) - morning, in the morning [AG]; ka-siⁿ-a-tʰi (kas̨tʰi) - morning, in the morning [MS]; e-ka-sa-ni (kasni), a-ka-sa-ni (kasni), e-ka-sa-ni-taⁿ (kasnittą)  - next morning

ex: shi-naⁿ ka-saⁿ-niⁿ a-kdi ta miⁿ-kʰe (ną kasą́nį akd tta mįkʰ) - Ill come back tomorrow [MS]

ex: wi-e mo-sh[i]o-ki a-kde ta miⁿ-kʰe ka-sa-ni (we m[i]okki akd tta mįkʰ kasni) - I am going to church in the morning (tomorrow) [AG]

Dhegiha: ga-sa-ni (gasni) - tomorrow [Omaha/Ponca]; ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (gaoⁿ thiⁿ) - tomorrow [Omaha]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ), ga-soⁿ-thiⁿ (ga-ⁿ-thiⁿ) - the morrow; dawn of another day [FL-Osage]; ga-soⁿ-iⁿ-doⁿ (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ doⁿ), ga-soⁿ-iⁿ-do (ga-ⁿ-iⁿ do) - to-morrow [FL-Osage]; ka-siⁿ (kaas̨), ka-siⁿ-e (kaas̨e), ka-siⁿ-ta (kaas̨ta) - tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ (gasⁿ), ga-si-da (gasída), ga-si-daⁿ (gasídaⁿ), ga-siⁿ-daⁿ (gasíⁿdaⁿ) - tomorrow [Kaw]

 

tomorrow, day after tomorrow

  ka-sa-ni ko-ti te-ta (kasni kkott ttett) - day after tomorrow

cf. ka-sa-ni (kasni), ka-saⁿ-niⁿ (kas̨nį) - tomorrow; ko-ti te-ta (kott ttett) - beyond; ko-ti (ktti) - further away; si-o-ti ko-ti te-ta (sitti kkott ttett) - the day before yesterday

Dhegiha: ka-siⁿ ko-ta-ha tse (kaas̨ kootha ce), ka-siⁿ ko-ta-ha (kaas̨ kootha) - day after tomorrow [CQ-Osage]; ga-siⁿ go-da-ha (gasíⁿ gódaha) - day after tomorrow [Kaw]

 

tongue

de-ze (dze) - tongue

de-ze (dze) - tongue [MS]

de-ze (deh-zeh) - tongue (langue) [GI]

de-ze (dse) - tongue [ASG]

ex: te de-ze (ttedze), te de-se (ttedse) - buffalo tongue

ex: de-ze ba-xe (dze bxe) - woodpecker

ex: de-ze o-zhi-ka (dze oka) - pharynx

Dhegiha: the-ze (thze) - a tongue [Omaha/Ponca]; the-ze (the) - a tongue [Omaha]; the-ze (th-e) - tongue [FL-Osage]; the-ze (eze) - tongue [CQ-Osage]; ye-ze (yéze) - tongue [Kaw]

 

tongue, buffalo tongue

te de-ze (ttedze), te de-se (ttedse) - buffalo tongue

cf. te (tte) - buffalo; de-ze (dze) - tongue

Dhegiha: te the-ze (tethze) - an animals tongue; buffalo tongue [Omaha/Ponca]; te the-ze (te thee) - buffalo tongue [Omaha]; ʰtse the-ze (ṭse-th-e) - buffalo tongue, sliced. smoked, and dried [FL-Osage]

 

tonight

haⁿ-de (h̨de) - tonight

cf. haⁿ (hą), hoⁿ (hǫ) - night; de (de) - this

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-the (hoⁿth) - tonight, this night [Omaha/Ponca]; haⁿ the (h̨ą e) - tonight [CQ-Osage]

 

Tonkawa Indian

taⁿ-ka-wa (tákawă) - Kwapa name for the Tonkaway (Tonkawa) Indians [JOD]

taⁿ-ka-wa (tonkwa) - Tonkawa (said to eat their children) [ASG]

taⁿ-ka-wa-we (tonkawwe) - plural Tonkawa [ASG]

Dhegiha: ni-ka tha-te (nikathate) - Tonkawa Tribe [Omaha]; wa-tha-hni (wa-th-hni) - Tonkawa Tribe, a devourer, swallower [FL-Osage]; wa-tha-ni (wanii) - Tonkawa tribe or tribal member [CQ-Osage]

 

too much, too high a price

wa-te-xi (wattxi) - too much, too high a price; difficult

cf. o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday; haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

ex: mi te-xi (mi ttxi) - young girl (difficult, precious, or sacred female) [OM]

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - The Only Precious, Difficult One, female personal name [OM)]

ex: haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - Difficult or Precious Female Haⁿ-ka, female personal name [FR]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ́ mi t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Bird Female Difficult to be won or captured [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]; wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-xi (tʰqi) - difficult, hard to do or bear; unreasonable; hard to get along with; expensive, dear, precious [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-xi (ṭse-xi) - hardship, dangers; sacred [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-xi (ʰcxi) - sacred, precious, difficult [CQ-Osage]

 

too

i-niⁿ-ha (inįh) - too [JOD]

ex: wa-kde sa i-niⁿ-ha a-kde pa naⁿ (wkde s inįh kde pa n̨) - they wore (a) black feather on the head too [JOD]

ex: e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ (ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbattą etti ppa ną) - sliver armlets and silver crescent bracelets, they put them on in rows, one after another [JOD]

ex: wi-zhoⁿ-de wi-ti-to i-niⁿ-ha, shi-zhi-ka e-ta-we e-naⁿ-hi o-shte ke, wi-e naⁿ-hi naⁿ-haⁿ e-ti miⁿ-kʰe (wįde witttto inįh, ika ettwe enąh ot ke, we nąh nąh̨ ett mįkʰ) - my elder sister and elder brother, their children are all that is left, I am the eldest [JOD]

ex: pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe i-niⁿ-ha aⁿ-da-kdi-ze taⁿ ta-xaⁿ-da-ki-de taⁿ aⁿ-da-ki-kiⁿ da-kde te, i-ke naⁿ (ppah nįkʰ inįh ądkdiz tą txądkid tą ądkikʔį dakd tte, ik ną) - you take my head and you barbecue it (for me), you carry/pack it (for me) when you go home, he said to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ, aⁿ-te taⁿ, si pa-hi naⁿ-pe i-niⁿ-ha ta-x[e]-aⁿ-ki-da ni-he, aⁿ-naⁿ-ki-ye kʰe naⁿ (kįttą, ątʔ tą, s ppah nąp inįh tx[e]ąkid-nih, ąn̨kiye kʰe ną) - then, when I die, barbecue may feet, head, and hands, he said to me as he lay [JOD]

 

too, also, and

ta (tt) - also, too, and, postposed to noun or pronoun

 

too, both, also

naⁿ-pa (n̨pa) - both, also, too

cf. naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two; e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too, also, too

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-kaⁿ naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa naⁿ, i-ya (mat̨ke ek̨ n̨pa ttikd nikʰa ną, iy) - Rabbit and his grandmother, the both of them lived together, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka miⁿ-xti wa-xo miⁿ-xti, naⁿ-pa o-ka-shte, i-ya (nkka m̨-xti waxʔ m̨-xti, n̨pa okt, iy) - one male and one female, two remained after the striking down of the others, it is said (they say) [JOD]

 

too, both, also, that one too

e-naⁿ-pa (nąpa) - both, that one too, also, too

cf. e (e) - that, he, she, it, aforementioned; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa) - both, also, too; naⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-pa (n̨pa), noⁿ-ba (n̨ba) - two

ex: i-shta-xe sha-ke e-ka-xnaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-pa ti-kda-wi (itxe ʔke ekxną nįkʰ enąp͓ ttkdaw) - the frenchman and his wife, the both of them kept house [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa (mikk mat̨ke enąp) - raccoon and rabbit, the both of them [JOD]

ex: mi-ka ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-naⁿ-pa ti-kde ni-kʰa (mikk mat̨ke enąpa ttkde nikʰ) - raccoon and rabbit both lived together [JOD]

ex: ni-ka she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa (nkka mika enąp) - both the man and little girl [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka niⁿ-kʰe she-mi zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kda-we, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka nįkʰ mika enąp kdwe, iywe) - then both the man and little girl started homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ ni-ka she-mi-zhi-ka e-naⁿ-pa kde pa, i-ya-we (kįttą nkka mika enąp kde p, iywe) - then both the man and little girl were going homeward, they say [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp) - yes, my mothers brother and also my fathers sister (addressing Winter and his wife) [JOD]

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

ex: e-naⁿ-pa (nąp) - she too [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa, (h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp,) - yes, uncle (my mothers brother) and aunt (my fathers sister), her also, [JOD]

Dhegiha: e-thoⁿ-ba (thoⁿba) - also, too: refers to two objects, and to no more [Omaha/Ponca]; e-thoⁿ-pa (-thoⁿ-ba) - and; he also; of the two divisions [FL-Osage]; e-thoⁿ-pa (eǫǫpa) - group including just mentioned individual(s) (can sometimes be translated as both, all, and another, and others, or as and I when followed by a verb with 1st pl. inflection) [CQ-Osage]; e-yoⁿ-ba (yoⁿba) - both, too, also; and (used with nouns) [Kaw]

 

too, exceedingly, much, very, often, always

a-ta-ha (ttaha) - too, exceedingly, much, very; often, always

ex: zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (kkatte ttaha) - to have a severe fever

ex: zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (kkatte ttaha) - body hot (=fever)/exceedingly [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ta-bde kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ ni-ka wi-ta, pa-ze de taⁿ kdi kaⁿ-tʰaⁿ naⁿ, e-ti-tʰaⁿ ti-a-zhi hi ha-te zho-ka-te a-ta-ha (etttʰą tbde ką-tʰ̨ ną nkka witt, ppze d tą kd ką-tʰ̨ ną, etttʰą ttiąi h hatʔ kkatte attah) - then my husband had been hunting, he returned after dark, then shortly after that he became sick with a severe fever [JOD]

ex: xwiⁿ a-ta-ha (xw̨ attah) - extremely offensive odor [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ o-di-bnaⁿ taⁿ, ho-hoo! xwiⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ye (kįttą odbną tą, hoho xw̨ attah, iy) - then when he sniffed, he said, Why! That smells really bad! [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha (nkkaka bn̨ attah) - sure enough smells like a human being [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka bnaⁿ a-ta-ha, i-ya taⁿ pa o-di-bnaⁿ naⁿ kaⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ i-ya-we (nkkaka bn̨ attah, iy tą pp dibn̨ ną k̨-nįkʰ ną iywe) - as he sat awhile, he sniffed around with his nose, he said, sure enough smells like a human being, they say [JOD]

ex: a-te-zhe ti-aⁿ a-ta-ha (atje tiⁿ ataha) - I felt an extreme urge to urinate [JOD]

ex: ni-ka sha-ke tʰaⁿ ta te-de a-ta-ha (nkka ʔak tʰą tta tʔde attah) - the old man killed many deer [JOD]

ex: i-ye a-ta-ha naⁿ (iyĕ tah naⁿ) - he talks too much [JOD]

ex: o! ka-tʰaⁿ wa-zhiⁿ de-da-zhi hi e-de, i-ye a-ta-ha (o! ktʰą wą ddai hi ed, ye attah) - pshaw! I have sure enough lost my patience with him, he talks too much [JOD]

ex: ki-ho-taⁿ a-ta-ha-zhi (khottą ttahi) - dislike something intensely

ex: aⁿ-si-si a-ta-ha (ąssi attah) - me very active [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-chʰoⁿ taⁿ aⁿ-si-si-zhi, haⁿ-te shtaⁿ a-ta-ha taⁿ (įčʰ̨ tą ąssi, hątʔ tą attah tą) - now Im not active and Im very sickly [JOD]

ex: si-si a-ta-ha (sis ttaha) - active/exceedingly [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha, i-ya (mat̨ke nį sis ttaha, iy) - the Rabbit was very active, it is said [JOD]

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha e-naⁿ, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te (nkkaka nį sis ttaha ną, nį̨ iy sniwtte) - that person is extremely active! thought Winter, it is said [JOD]

ex: a-ta-ha-we (attahwe) - altogether (plural) [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-xo-we a-ta-ha-we, i-yi (̨ttaxowe attahwe, iy) - he said, youall told a great lie (JOD)]

ex: naⁿ-pe-hi a-ta-ha-wi (nąpphi attahwi) - they were very hungry [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa-xti (tʰaqti) - very much more than; far beyond [Omaha/Ponca]

Dhegiha: u-doⁿ a-tʰa (doⁿ tʰa) - more than good, better [JOD-Omaha]; a-tʰa-ta (tʰata) - in succession, one beyond another [Omaha/Ponca]

 

a-ta-pa (ttapp) - too, great, exceeding; often, always [JOD];

cf. xti (xti) - very, real, fully; a-ta-pa-xti (ttappaxt) - off and on, at regular intervals

ex: a-ta-pa-xti (ttappxti) - altogether [JOD]

ex: mi-zhi-ka ho-taⁿ a-ta-pa-xti kaⁿ-iⁿ tʰe ki-de (miik httą ttappaxti k̨į tʰ kid) - so she was dressed as a very pretty girl [JOD]

Dhegiha: a-tʰa (tʰa) - beyond; more than; extreme, excessive [Omaha/Ponca]; a-ʰta (-ṭa) - beyond [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: u-doⁿ a-tʰa (doⁿ tʰa) - more than good, better [JOD-Omaha]; a-tʰa-ta (tʰata) - in succession, one beyond another [Omaha/Ponca]; a-tʰa-xti (tʰaqti) - very much more than; far beyond [Omaha/Ponca]

 

too, he too, she too, it too

e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

cf. wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me; di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too

ex: o-te niⁿ, i-ya-we, e-hoⁿ i-de, i-ya-we (ott nį, iywe, eh̨ de, iywe) - he was looking for it, they said, he found/saw it too, they said [JOD]

ex: ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-hoⁿ o-pʰe naⁿ (mat̨ke eh̨ opʰ ną) - rabbit/he too/entered/past sign [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka ke o-pʰa-we di-xa-zhi ha tʰe, e-shoⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-hoⁿ o-pʰe naⁿ, i-ya (ę nkkaka ke opʰwe dixi ha tʰe, ę mat̨ke eh̨ opʰ ną, iy) - then the people entered the Hills mouth, and Rabbit entered too, it is said [JOD]

 

too, me too

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (weh̨), wi-e-haⁿ (wieh̨) - I too, me too [JOD]

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

cf. di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

ex: wi-e-haⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ hi-we (wiehaⁿ́ ̨nį-hiw) - they took me there also [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ te-aⁿ-da-we i-da-hoⁿ-bde i-ye tʰaⁿ i-ya (wehǫ tʔędaw idhǫbde iy tʰą iy) - he said, me too, they killed me, I dreamed that, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ, wi-zhiⁿ-de naⁿ-pe-aⁿ-hi aⁿ-maⁿ taⁿ-ha he-be a-ki-kiⁿ koⁿ-bda, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wehǫ, wįde n̨ppęhi ąm̨ t̨ha hbe akkʔį kkǫbd, iy iy mat̨ke) - my elder brother, I too want to carry my own piece because I have been hungry, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: wi-e-hoⁿ iⁿ-kaⁿ wa-shiⁿ ni-ke hi taⁿ-ha e-koⁿ a-ki a-tʰi a-ni-he, i-we-ke, i-ya (wehǫ įkk̨ wą nik hi t̨ha ek̨ ki tʰi nih, iwke, iy) - as for me, my grandmother does not have any fat meat at all, because of that I came here to get it for her, he said to them, it is said [JOD]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkk̨ik wehǫ owkk̨ik waǰni) - he (white man) dont like me and I dont like him either [MS]

Dhegiha: wi-shti (wshti) - I too; me too [Omaha/Ponca]; wi-shki (w-shki), wi-shti (w-shti) - I also [FL-Osage]; wi-shki (wik) - me too, I too [CQ-Osage]; wi-shke (wishké), wi-shki (wishkí) - me, too; I, too [Kaw]

 

too, very

taⁿ-da (tt̨da) - very, too

 

too, you too

di-e-hoⁿ (dehǫ) - you too

cf. wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I too, me too, as for me; e-hoⁿ (eh̨) - it, he, she, too

ex: di-e-hoⁿ e-ti-koⁿ i-ha pa-zhiⁿ-zhe e-naⁿ-pa o-do-ki-di-shpa-shpa-zhi koⁿ iⁿ (dehǫ ettik̨ ha ppąe en̨p͓a odkkidpapa k̨ į) - you too/that way/mouth/nose/it too/you (are) split in many places/so (=like)/period [JOD]

 

tool, dull a tool

di-to-ke (dittke) - dull, blunt a tool bdi-to-ke (bdttoke) - I, ti-to-ke (ttttoke) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; cause by using the hands; bi-to-ke (bittke) - wear away by rubbing or file; ba-to-ke (battke) - wear away, wear out; da-to-ke (dattke) - dull, wear the teeth, blunt; ka-to-ke (kattke) - wear down by striking, to dull; naⁿ-to-ke (nąttke) - wear down by walking, as shoes; pa-to-ke (pttoke) - wear away a knife blade; po-to-ke (pttoke) - dull by punching, as a spear

 

ka-be-shiⁿ (kabį) - dull a tool trying to sharpen it

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, by action of the wind or water; be-shiⁿ (bį) - curved, flared; di-be-shiⁿ (dibę) - bend something backwards

Dhegiha: be-shiⁿ (b-shiⁿ) - the shape of a china cup which flares at the top [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: yu-be-shiⁿ (yubshiⁿ) - bend something slightly, turn or roll something upwards [Kaw]

 

tooth, pull a tooth

hi di-shto-te (hi dittte) - pull a tooth

cf. hi (hi) - teeth, tooth; di-shto-te (dittte) - pull off, uproot

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth [Omaha]; hi (hi) - a tooth; teeth [JOD-Omaha]; hi (hi) - tooth ot teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

Dhegiha: thi-zhnu-de (iɔnde) - pulled off; pulling it off [JOD-Omaha]; thi-stsu-dse (thi-sts-dse) - to draw or pull off; to draw, as to pull [FL-Osage]; thi-shto-e (iite), thi-shto-we (iitwe), thi-shto-wi (iitwi), thi-shto (iit) - take off or remove a garment; undress; remove or take off by pulling, pull off (e.g., a shoe or boot); pull (e.g., a tooth) to remove it [CQ-Osage]; yu-shto-je (yushtje) - remove a garment; take off an article of clothing; undress [Kaw]; yu-shtso-je (yushcje), yu-shto-je (yushtje) - pull up a peg, pull up on something [Kaw]

 

tooth, teeth

hi (hi) - tooth

hi (hi) - teeth [MS, OM]

hi (hi˙) - tooth, teeth [FS]

hi (h́) - teeth, tooth [ASG]

ex: ta hi (ttah) - deers teeth

ex: hi o-ta-ho-kde (h ottahokd) - canine teeth

ex: hi o-ta-ho-kde o-ba-taⁿ (h ottahokd obttą) - bicuspid teeth

ex: hi o-taⁿ-ka (h ott̨ka) - teeth, molars

ex: hi pe-shte (hi ppte) - teeth, incisors

ex: hi pe-shte-te (hi pptette) - incisors

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - a tooth, teeth [Omaha/Ponca]; hi (hi) - tooth [Omaha]; hi (hi) - tooth or teeth [FL-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - tooth, teeth [Kaw]

 

toothache, have a toothache

hi iⁿ-te (hi įt) - toothache, have a toothache hi aⁿ-te (hi ąt) - I, hi di-iⁿ-te (hi dįt) - you, hi waⁿ-te-a-we (hi w̨[t]tewe) - we

cf. hi (hi) - tooth; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, to have a pain

 

toothpick

hi-ka-sho-ko-bo-te (hkakobotte), hi-ga-sho-go-bo-te (hgagobotte) - tooth pick

Dhegiha: hi-u-ga-sha-ge i-ba-gu-de (higashge bagde) - a toothpick [Omaha/Ponca]; hi u-ga-sha-ge i-ba ku-de (hi ugashage iba kude) - toothpick [Omaha]; hiu-ga-sha-ge i-ba-gu-dse (hi-ga-sha-ge i-ba-gu-dse) - a toothpick [FL-Osage]; hi o-ga-sha-ge i-ba-go-je (hí ogashage íbagòje) - toothpick [Kaw]

Dhegiha: hi-u-ga-sha-ge (higashge) - any thing which gets between the teeth, as particles of food [Omaha/Ponca]; hiu-ga-sha-ge (hi-ga-sha-ge) - particles of food that lodge between the teeth while eating [FL-Osage]; hi o-ga-sha-ge (hí ógashàge) - particles between the teeth, as food [Kaw]

 

top heavy

po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at po-a-shoⁿ-da-da (poǫdad) - I, po-da-shoⁿ-da-da (pdaǫdad) - you

cf. po (p) - by shooting, blowing, punching; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]

 

ta-shoⁿ-da-da (tǫdad) - top heavy, unsteady by burning, said of a fire, not a personal act

cf. ta (t-) - by extreme temperature; shoⁿ-da-da (̨dada) - unsteady, insecure; ba-shoⁿ-da-da (bądada) - loosen, destabilize pushing at; bi-shoⁿ-da-da (bįdada) - upset, make unsteady pressing; ka-shoⁿ-da-da (kądada) - undercut by striking, chopping; naⁿ-shoⁿ-da-da (ną̨dad) - destabilize with the foot; kick loose; pa-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - undercut, undermine; po-shoⁿ-da-da (pǫdad) - make top heavy by thrusting at

Dhegiha: shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿth) - spilled, upset and spilled, tipped over and spilled [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshⁿtha) - loosened in its socket, as a fence post ot a tooth [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ-shoⁿ-tha (shoⁿshoⁿtha) - limber [Omaha]

 

top or crown of head

ta-xpi (ttaxp) - top or crown of head

cf. ta-xpi shta (ttaxp ta) - bald head

ex: ta-xpi niⁿ-kʰe (ttaxp-nįkʰe) - the top of the head

Dhegiha: ta-xpi (taqp) - top of the head, crown [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-xpi (taxp) - top of the head [Omaha]; ʰta-xpi (ṭa-xp) - crown of the head FL-Osage]; ta-xpu (taxp) - crown of the head, top of the head [Kaw]

 

top, hill with pointed peak or top

a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak

pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - hill with pointed peak or top

pa-si-kde (psikd) - point of land [JOD]

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill; pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose; pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River; ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples; wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill; ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - garfish

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ ʰpa-si (-thiⁿ p̣a-i) - summit, top of a hill, the summit of a hill, hill top [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ pa-su (yiⁿ pas) - headland [Kaw]

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tree-top, tongue-tip, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (pai) - tip; ʰpa-si (p̣a-) - a peak, point, top of a tree, the top of a poll [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (p̣-u) - tip of nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object like the point of a pencil, corner of a room, etc. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰpa-siu-gthiⁿ (p̣a-i-gthiⁿ) - dwellers-upon-the-hill-top, when the river (Mississippi) overflowed its banks, a group of Osage Indians fled from their village and sought the high hills and there established a camp, they were known by the name of ʰpa-siu-gthiⁿ (p̣a-i-gthiⁿ) and settled in Grayhorse [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su o-liⁿ (ʰpas ol̨į), ʰpa-si-o-liⁿ (ʰpasilįį), ʰpa-su-liⁿ (ʰpaslį), ʰpa-so-liⁿ (ʰpaslįį) - living on the end, dwelling on the cliffs, Fairfax or Grayhorse group of Osages, lit., living on the end, referring to the west end of the allotment [CQ-Osage]

 

top, on top of

a-shi (i) - over, on top of, on, over

a-shi (i) - on, over [AG]

ex: a-ni a-shi (ni i) - up on a hill [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ a-ni a-shi tʰaⁿ, i-bniⁿ-aⁿ (̨keaknį ni i tʰ̨, bnį̨) - I think the horse is standing on the hill

ex: iⁿ a-shi (į i) - on the stone

ex: ni a-shi (ni i) - on the water

ex: ni kʰe a-shi de kʰe (n kʰe i de kʰ) - the water goes (flows) over (ice formed earlier)

ex: a-shi-niⁿ (inį) - coat, to wear or put on top of, wear over

ex: a-shi a-kde (ai akde) - to set an object on top of something else

ex: ni kʰe a-shi de kʰe (n kʰe i de kʰ) - the water goes (flows) over (ice formed earlier),

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ te (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tte) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-a-ki-knaⁿ ta miⁿ-kʰe (pphi-kną wanąbde i akikną tta mįkʰ) - I will put my hat on the table

ex: pa-hi o-knaⁿ a-wa-naⁿ-bde a-shi a-ki-knaⁿ tʰaⁿ (pphi-kną wanąbde i kikną tʰą) - he is putting his hat on the table

ex: a-shi ki-knaⁿ (i kikn̨) - pull up out of; pull something out of water, mud, a hole, etc.

 

top, round topped hill

a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha), shta (t) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtah), (shtha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

 

a-ni shta-shta-ha (ni tatha) - round topped hills in series

cf. a-ni (ni) - hill; shta-ha (tha) - smooth, rounded; a-ni shta-ha (ni tha) - hill with round top

Dhegiha: a-thiⁿ (thiⁿ) - hillside, ridge [Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (iⁿ) - ridge [JOD-Omaha]; a-thiⁿ (-thiⁿ) - a ridge or divide [FL-Osage]; a-yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - ridge, divide [Kaw]

Dhegiha: zhna-ha (zhnah) - smooth, slippery [Omaha/Ponca]; shna-ha (shnha) - slippery, smooth [Omaha]; shta-ha (sht-ha) - slick, smooth [FL-Osage]; shta-ha (tha), shta (t) - shiny and smooth as a lake surface, slick, bald, hairless, cleared [CQ-Osage]; shta-ha (shtah), (shtha) - smooth, slippery, slick [Kaw]

 

top, tip

i-ta-xe (įttγe) - tip, top, point

ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe (h̨ba ittγe) - daybreak, lit. tip of daylight

ex: haⁿ-ba i-ta-xe saⁿ-haⁿ (h̨pa įttγe s̨hą) - daybreak, lit. tip of whitish daylight

Dhegiha: i-tʰa-xe (itʰxe) - tip, point, end [Omaha/Ponca]; i-ta-xe (itaxe) - tip [Omaha]; i-ʰta-xe (i-ṭ-xe) - the tip or top of an object [FL-Osage]; i-ʰta-xe (iʰtɣe) - tip [CQ-Osage]; i-ta-ghe (itghe) - tip [Kaw]

 

pa-si (ppas) - tip of something, beak or bill

ex: a-ni pa-si-kde (ni ppaskde) - hill with sharp peak

ex: ho pa-si ste-te (ho ppsi sttte) - gar, long nosed fish

ex: ma-ze pa-si (maz ppas) - nipples

ex: pa pa-si (ppppas) - tip of the nose

ex: pa-si-kde (ppaskde) - point of land; hill with pointed peak or top

ex: pa-si o-do-ka-hi (ppas odokhi) - spoonbill, paddlefish, fish with a hide like that of a catfish, no scales, found in Neosho River

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si (wąka ppsi) - birds beak, bill

ex: wa-zhiⁿ-ka pa-si to-te wa-naⁿ-iⁿ (wąka ppsi ttte wan̨ʔį) - birds beak necklace

Dhegiha: pa-si (pas) - tip, tree-top, tongue-tip, etc. [Omaha/Ponca]; pa-si (pai) - tip; ʰpa-si (p̣a-), ʰpa-su (p̣-u) - a peak, point, top of a tree, the top of a poll; tip of nose [FL-Osage]; ʰpa-su (ʰpas) - tip or point of an object [CQ-Osage]; pa-su (pas) - tip, point of an object like the point of a pencil, corner of a room, etc. [Kaw]

 

topple

di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip bdi-xa-da (bdxada) - I, ti-xa-da (ttxada) - you

cf. di (di) - by hand, pulling; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base

 

naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot a-naⁿ-xa-da (an̨xada) - I, da-naⁿ-xa-da (dan̨xada) - you

cf. naⁿ (ną) - by action of the foot; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base

 

po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple po-a-xa-da (paxad) - I, po-da-xa-da (pdaxda) - you

cf. po (po) - by shooting, blowing, punching; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base

 

ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

ta-xa-da-de (txadad) - topple by burning away base ta-xa-da a-de (txada ad) - I, ta-xa-da da-de (txada dade) - you

cf. ta (t) - by extreme temperature, heat or cold; ta-xa-da (txad) - topple by burning, burn down; de (de) - cause to, to cause; bi-xa-da (bixda) - cause to fall of own weight; di-xa-da (dixda) - pull over, topple, flip; ka-xa-da (kaxda) - fell, cut down, knock down; naⁿ-xa-da (nąxad) - kick over, topple with the foot; po-xa-da (pxada) - knock over punching, topple

 

tortoise, tiny species of water tortoise

ke zhaⁿ-xa (kke ąxa) - turtle, tiny species of water tortoise; Quapaws will not allow anyone to lift it by the tail, lest there be a flood

 

touch or feel something

di-taⁿ (ditt̨) - feel, touch something bdi-taⁿ (bdttą) - I, ti-taⁿ (ttttą) - you

cf. di-taⁿ-taⁿ (ditt̨ttą) - feel one's way, grope around; di-taⁿ-kde (ditt̨kde) - touch to attract attention

Dhegiha: thi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰⁿ) - to touch, to feel [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ʰtoⁿ (thi-ṭⁿ) - to touch, as feeling, to touch with the hand, to feel [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰtaⁿ (iiʰt̨) - handle, knead, work something with the hand, grasp, touch with the hand, feel someone or something [CQ-Osage]; yu-taⁿ (yutⁿ) - touch, feel with the hands, treat, palpate, work on with the hands, to work at or on any object, as a doctor does in treating a wound, etc. [Kaw]

 

touch or tap to gain attention

o-tʰiⁿ-kde (otʰ̨kde) - touch, tap to gain attention o-a-tʰiⁿ-a-kde (otʰįkde) - I, o-da-tʰiⁿ-da-kde (odtʰįdkde) - you

cf. o-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨) - strike, slap, hit; o-tʰiⁿ-tʰiⁿ (otʰ̨tʰį) - pat; o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike on behalf of someone else; o-ki-tʰiⁿ (oktʰį) - strike ones own; i-tʰiⁿ (itʰ̨) - hit, strike with something; naⁿ-pe bda-ska i-tʰiⁿ (nąp bdask itʰ̨) - slap; i-ki-tʰiⁿ (kitʰį) - hit ones own; iⁿ-tʰiⁿ (̨tʰį) - stick, club [JOD]

Dhegiha: u-tiⁿ (utiⁿ́) -beat, hit, spank, strike, club, a blow [Omaha]; u-tsiⁿ (-tsiⁿ) - to maul, to beat, to pound, to strike, to give a drubbing, to thrash [FL-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (ocʰ) - whip strongly, beat up, spank or get someone, drup, thrash [CQ-Osage]; o-tsʰiⁿ (cʰį) - hit or beat things, such as a drum [CQ-Osage]; o-chiⁿ (ochⁿ) - hit [Kaw]

 

touch to attract attention

di-taⁿ-kde (ditt̨kde) - touch to attract attention bdi-taⁿ-a-kde (bdttąkde) - I, ti-taⁿ-da-kde (ttttądkde) - you

cf. di-taⁿ (ditt̨) - feel, touch something

Dhegiha: thi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰⁿ) - to touch, to feel [Omaha/Ponca]; thi-ʰtoⁿ (thi-ṭⁿ) - to touch, as feeling, to touch with the hand, to feel [FL-Osage]; thi-ʰtaⁿ (iiʰt̨) - handle, knead, work something with the hand, grasp, touch with the hand, feel someone or something [CQ-Osage]; yu-taⁿ (yutⁿ) - touch, feel with the hands, treat, palpate, work on with the hands, to work at or on any object, as a doctor does in treating a wound, etc. [Kaw]

 

touch, put two objects so their ends/edges touch

a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting (curvilinear--JOD) objects so their edges touch a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-a-de (kkikną in̨ade) - I, a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-da-de (kkikną in̨dade) - you

cf. knaⁿ (kną), kdaⁿ (kdą) - set or put; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put upon a surface; a-ki-knaⁿ (kikną) - set ones own sitting, inanimate or cloth object on a surface; ki-knaⁿ (kikn̨) - set or put ones own; o-ki-knaⁿ (okkną) - put sg/si/in into or beneath, as putting in the belt, etc; o-knaⁿ (okn̨), o-kdaⁿ (okd̨) - put into; pi knaⁿ (ppi kn̨) - put away; stode knaⁿ-knaⁿ (stod knąkną) - place plural objects in scattered heaps; i-naⁿ-de (in̨de) - put singular/sitting/inanimate or cloth/paper

Dhegiha: a-gi-gthaⁿ (-gi-gaⁿ) - to place his own cv. ob., book, paper, piece of calico, etc., on something else; to apply his medicine externally, as a plaster or poultice [JOD-Omaha]; a-gu-laⁿ (gulaⁿ) - set ones object upon; set ones cloth, paper, book, etc., on a surface; set a squat object on a surface for someone [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-noⁿ-the (inoⁿthe) - put away, put it down [Omaha]; i-noⁿ-the (i-nⁿ-the) - to put upon the ground [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-thaⁿ-the (iaⁿĕ) - to put down [JOD-Omaha]; i-thoⁿ-the (i-thⁿ-the) - to put something away that is round [FL-Osage]; i-yaⁿ-ye (iyⁿye) - put, place a sitting/inanimate object anywhere [Kaw]

 

a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-a-de (kkikkkde itʰade) - I, a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-da-de (kkikkkde itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-ʰki-gthe (ḳiḳigthe) to join two boards or poles [FL-Osage]; a-ki-ki-le (akkile) - stacked on top of each other; joined at the ends making a joint, as two boards [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-te-the (i-t-ĕ) - put it; to put or place, make stand, usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to put down something erect [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch a-ki-ki-kde i-he-da-de (kkikkkde ihdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch; i-he-de (ihde) - put a horizontal object

Dhegiha: a-ʰki-ʰki-gthe (ḳiḳigthe) to join two boards or poles [FL-Osage]; a-ki-ki-le (akkile) - stacked on top of each other; joined at the ends making a joint, as two boards [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-he-the (i-h-ĕ) - to put or place a recl. an. ob. or lg. in. ob., as a tool, plank, etc. [JOD-Omaha]; i-he-the (-h-the) - to lay down a long object [FL-Osage]; i-he-the (i-h-the) - to put a thing down, made to lie in death [FL-Osage]; i-he-ye (ihye) - put down a singular, lying, inanimate object [Kaw]

 

a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-de (kkikdska itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-a-de (kkikdska itʰade) - I, a-ki-kda-ska i-tʰe-da-de (kkikdska itʰdade) - you

cf. a-ki-ki-kde i-tʰe-de (kkikkkde itʰde) - put two standing, inanimate objects so their ends touch; a-ki-ki-kde i-he-de (kkikkkde ihde) - put two long inanimate objects, e.g., books, planks, so their ends touch; a-ki-knaⁿ i-naⁿ-de (kkikną in̨de) - put two sitting curvilinear objects so their edges touch; i-tʰe-de (itʰde) - stand something up, singular/standing/inanimate

Dhegiha: i-te-the (i-t-ĕ) - put it; to put or place, make stand, usually applied to objects standing on end, as barrels; to put many small things in one pile or heap [JOD-Omaha]; i-tse-the (i-ts-the) - to place with someone for safe keeping; to put down something erect [FL-Osage]; i-che-ye (ichye) - put down a standing/inanimate object or pile of objects [Kaw]

 

tousle, ruffle

di-hiⁿ-xte (dihįxt) - tousle, ruffle bdi-hiⁿ-xte (bdhįxte) - I, ti-hiⁿ-xte (tthįxte) - you

 

tough

sa-ki (sak) - hard, firm

ex: di-sa-ki (diski) - hard, moulded with hands

ex: o-we sa-ki (ow sak) - [MS, JOD] - dried corn

Dhegiha: sa-gi (sag) - firm, hard, hard as sweet corn before it is boiled, tight, fast, difficult to untie or loosen [Omaha/Ponca]; sa-gi (gi) - solid, durable, hard, firm, tough [Omaha]; sa-gi (-gi) - firm, solid, durable, hard, lasting, tough, tough meat, strong, inflexible, not easily bent, to fasten firmly [FL-Osage]; sa-ki (saak) - tight, tightly, firm, solid, hard, strong, muscular, difficult, hard to do things with [CQ-Osage]; sa-gi (sag) - hard, firm, tight, tough, strong, muscular [Kaw]

 

si-ze (sze) - hard, difficult, to be firm

si-ze (sse), si-ze hi (ssehi) - hard [ASG]

ex: i-ye si-ze ni-ke ka-xe (ye siznike kγe) - abrogate

ex: ti-zhe i-si-ze knaⁿ (tti isze kną) - lock, lit. holds door firm

Dhegiha: thi-si-ze (iszĕ) - to grasp an object tightly once [JOD-Omaha]

 

wa-te-xi (wattxi) - too much, too high a price; difficult

ex: haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi zhi-ka (h̨ba wattxi ka) - Saturday, little Sunday

ex: haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi (h̨ba wattxi) - Sunday

ex: haⁿ-ba wa-te-xi naⁿ-pa (hąb wattxi nąp) - fortnight, two Sundays

ex: o-te-xi (ttexi) - difficult to do

ex: mi te-xi (mi ttxi) - young girl (difficult, precious, or sacred female) [OM]

ex: e-naⁿ mi te-xi (ną mi ttxi) - The Only Precious, Difficult One, female personal name [OM)]

ex: haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - Difficult or Precious Female Haⁿ-ka, female personal name [FR]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ mi te-xi (wa-jiⁿ́ mi t-qi) - female name of the Kwapa wa-zhiⁿ-ka (wajik͓a) or Bird gens; Bird Female Difficult to be won or captured [JOD]

Dhegiha: wa-te-xi (watxi) - difficult action with a purpose, male name [Omaha]; wa-ʰtse-xi (wa-ṭs-xi) - difficult to destroy, to be tenacious of life, stingy, ungenerous, not liberal, penurious [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtse-xi (waʰcxi) - be difficult, hard, challenging, not easy to do [CQ-Osage]; wa-tse-xi (wacxi) - be hard, difficult to endure, something difficult, be difficult [Kaw]

Dhegiha: tʰe-xi (tʰqi) - difficult, hard to do or bear; unreasonable; hard to get along with; expensive, dear, precious [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtse-xi (ṭse-xi) - hardship, dangers; sacred [FL-Osage]; ʰtse-xi (ʰcxi) - sacred, precious, difficult [CQ-Osage]

 

toward north

o-sni-hi-tta (osnhitta) - north, toward north [ASG]

cf. o-sni (osn) - cold, north, northwind; hi (hi) - very; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

Dhegiha: u-sni (ni) - cold [Omaha]; u-sni (u-s͓n) - cold, cool [JOD-Omaha]; u-hni (u-hn) - shade, cool [FL-Osage]

Dhegiha: hiu (hiu) - several; many; more than one or two [FL-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, lots (of), large amount (of) [CQ-Osage]; hu (hu) - many, much, a lot, a great many [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

toward spring

pe-ta-de (pettde) - towards spring [FR, OM]

pe-ta-de (pttad) - spring [ASG]

cf. pe-ta-ti (pttatti) - in the spring [JOD]; pe (pe) - summer; spring [ASG]

Dhegiha: me (me) - spring, the spring of the year [Omaha/Ponca]; be (be) - spring of the year [FL-Osage]; pe (pe) - springtime, spring [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: me-daⁿ (me-dⁿ) - spring time, in the spring; during the spring [JOD-Omaha]; be-doⁿ (be doⁿ) - in the spring [FL-Osage]; pe-taⁿ (pe tą) - in the spring, in springtime, when it is spring [CQ-Osage]

 

toward, facing at right angles toward the wind

ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind

cf. ta-ti-oⁿ-he (ttttįhe), ta-ti-aⁿ-he (ttttįhe) - wind; kda-kaⁿ (kdkką), kda-kʰaⁿ (kdkʰą) - crosswise, across; ta-ti-ok-kda-kʰaⁿ (ttttikdakʰ̨) - across the wind, as when a boat tacks;

o-ka-xde (okxde) - face a certain direction, face a direction, facing towards

Dhegiha: ta-de gtha-kʰoⁿ (tad gthkʰoⁿ) - across wind, across the wind, perpendicular to the wind direction [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-de gtha-kaⁿ (t͓a-d g-kaⁿ) - across the way that the wind blows [JOD-Omaha]

Dhegiha: u-ga-xthe (-ga-qe) - to be facing a certain direction [JOD-Omaha]; o-ka-le (okle) - face a certain direction [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xle (ogxle) - facing, face a direction, facing towards [Kaw]

 

toward, go or come toward you

shoⁿ-de (ǫd) - go toward you, go to the place where you are or near you; come toward you; go to someone, go to a person shoⁿ-bde (ǫbd) - I

ex: shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ǫbd tta mįkʰ) - I go to you/I will [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-e, shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (kįe, ǫbd tta mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - no matter what, I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (d ǫbd tt mįkʰ) - this/I go to you/I will [JOD]

ex: wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke (wttek, d ǫbd tt mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke) - uncle (my mothers brother), I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said [JOD]

Dhegiha: shu-the (shuth) - to go to you [Omaha/Ponca]; sho-the (sho-th), shu-the (shu-th) - come toward you; coming where you are [FL-Osage]; shoⁿ-the (ǫe), sho-the (oe) - go toward you, go to the place where you are or near you [CQ-Osage]; sho-ye (shoyé), sho-we (showé) - go to someone; go to a person [Kaw]

 

toward, in that direction, to, at

ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ta (tta) - toward [ASG]

ex: tʰe-ta (tʰett) - to the, at the [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ ti tʰe-ta kʰi naⁿ i-ya (ę tt tʰtta kʰ ną iy) - then, when he returned to his home, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti tʰe-ta da-kʰi taⁿ (tt tʰett dakʰ tą) - lodge-to the-you reach home-when [JOD]

ex: a-kʰi-kniⁿ-xti ti tʰe-ta hi-we i-ya (akʰknį-xti tti tʰetta hwe iy) - they went to the lodge, crowding together, sitting upon one another, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: kʰe-ta (kʰtta) - at the [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e ti tʰe-ta ki taⁿ ti a-naⁿ-se taⁿ kʰe-ta o-pi-zhi kʰe o-koⁿ-he (kįttą e tt tʰtta k tą tti nąs ttą kʰtta ppii kʰe kʔǫh) - then when she returned to her house, she put the box in (her) room [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - Im going to my house [OM]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - Im going home [OM]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de taⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: e-ta (etta) - there [JOD]

ex: koi-ta (kitta) - there, in that place

ex: niⁿ-kʰe-ta (nįkʰett) - to the curvilinear object [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (tt̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: ke-ta (kett) - to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ta e-ti te na-ha i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke-tta tti tt nah ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears, his grandmother said to him, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: tʰaⁿ-ta (tʰątt) - to the standing [JOD]

ex: shoⁿ-ke-a-kniⁿ tʰaⁿ-ta a-ki-kniⁿ (̨keknį tʰątt kikn̨) - horse-to the standing-she sat on her own [JOD]

Dhegiha: ta (-ta) - at, to [Omaha/Ponca]; ta (-ta) - suffix of position or of motion to a place; at; to [JOD-Omaha]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (-ta) - in, at, towards: locative added to nouns or adverbs to create an adverb [Kaw]

 

toward, sharpen pulling toward oneself

kdi-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen pulling toward oneself a-kdi-zi-ka (akdzikka) - I, da-kdi-zi-ka (dakdzikka) - you

cf. o-zi-ka (ozkka) - wider at one end than other; ba-zi-ka (bazkka) - sharpen; bi-zi-ka (bizkka) - sharpen by rubbing, hone; da-zi-ka (dazkka) - chew to a point, sharpen; di-zi-ka (dizkka) - sharpen; ki-di-zi-ka (kdizkka) - sharpen something for someone; ka-zi-ka (kazkka) - sharpen, as with an axe, whittle; pa-zi-ka (pzikka) - whittle to a point; ta-zi-ka (tzikka) - burn to a point

 

towards sunrise

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - sun/rise/towards [JOD]

mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, towards sunrise

cf. mi (mi) - sun; o-tiⁿ (ttį) - visible, insight; naⁿ-pe (n̨pe) - come into view, come into the open, to appear, to show; ta-de-de (ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise; o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes; a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

ex: e-ti mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! i-ke (tti mi ottinąbettadede ̨tʰį ded! ik) - she told him, throw the club/stick there, towards the sunrise! [JOD]

ex: e-ti ka-ki mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de iⁿ-tʰiⁿ de-da! aⁿnaⁿ-ki-ye (tti kki mi ttin̨bettadde ̨tʰį ded! ąn̨kiye) - there, yonder, towards the sunrise, throw the club/stick! she said to me [JOD]

Dhegiha: miⁿ e-thoⁿ-be (mⁿethⁿbe) - sunrise [Omaha/Ponca]; miⁿ e-thaⁿ-be (mⁿ-e-ⁿ-be) - sunrise [JOD-Omaha]; mi i-thoⁿ-be (m-i-thoⁿ-be) - the sun appears; sunrise [FL-Osage]; miⁿ i-thoⁿ-pe (m̨į ǫpe) - sunrise, the emergence of the sun, lit., sun appears [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: e-thaⁿ-be (-aⁿ-be) - to appear in sight; to emerge from, as from water [JOD-Omaha]; e-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - rises and appears [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; hi-thoⁿ-be (h-thoⁿ-be) - to be exposed [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise; emerge, as from water [Kaw]

Dhegiha: ʰtiⁿ (ṭiⁿ) - visible, readily seen [FL-Osage]; tiⁿ (tiⁿ) - visible [Kaw]; wa-tiⁿ (watⁿ) - visible, in sight [Kaw]

 

towards sunset

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset

mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side

cf. mi o-xpe (m oxp) - sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset; ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; e-ta-do-shi ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of

Dhegiha: mi u-xpe (mi--xpe) - sun falls, sunset [FL-Osage]

 

towards the water

ni-a-ta de-de (nitta-dde) - towards the water [JOD]

cf. ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake; ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction; de-de (dde) - sent away, causative of go

ex: ni-a-ta de-de aⁿ-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde ̨dikizaw) - youall make a place for me towards the water [JOD]

ex: ni-a-ta de-de ki-di-ki-za-we (nitta-dde kdikizwe) - they made a way for him towards the water [JOD]

 

towards, extend the arm towards person

noⁿ-pe da-ki-a-ti (nǫp dakkiatt̨) - extend the arm towards person

cf. naⁿ-pe (nąp), noⁿ-pe (nǫp) - hand; da-ki-a-tiⁿ (dakkiatt̨) - stretch out hand to someone

 

towards, in that direction

ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

cf. ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side; ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of

ex: mi-o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (moxpe-ttadede doi) - toward the sunset, on the west side

 

towards, in the direction of

ta-de-de (-ttadde) - towards, in the direction of

cf. ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

ex: mi o-ti-naⁿ-be-ta-de-de (mi ttin̨bettadde) - northeast, towards sunrise

ex: o-sni-hi-ta-de-de (osnihttadde) - northwest, whence the cold comes

ex: a-ka-hi-da-ta-de-de (kahdattadde) - southeast location, direction, towards the south, downstream  

ex: mi o-xpe-ta-de-de (m oxpttadde) - southwest, towards sunset

ex: ko-i-ta-de-de (kittadde) - a little to one side

 

towards, straight towards

do-hi (dhi) - straight towards [JOD]

ex: do-hi tʰi (dhi tʰ) - he came straight towards them [JOD]

 

do-taⁿ-ti hi (dott̨tti h) - directly to him/she arrived there [JOD]

ex: e-shoⁿ miⁿ-xti o-shte tʰaⁿ sha-taⁿ-ka do-taⁿ-ti hi (ę m̨xti ot tʰą ʔatt̨ka dott̨tti h) - then the one that remained went straight to the devil [JOD]

 

towards, to race back towards ones own

a-ki-ki-a-naⁿ (kikkiną) - towards, to race back towards ones own

cf. ki-a-naⁿ (kkiną) - race

ex: a-ki-ki-a-naⁿ (kikkiną) - she ran back towards her own [JOD]

ex: e-ti-tʰaⁿ ko-e-kde i-ya-we, maⁿ-te kʰe a-ki-ki-a-naⁿ, i-ya-we (etttʰą kokde iywe, mątt kʰe kikkiną, iywe) - then she started to run, she ran/raced back towards her canoe, they say [JOD]

Dhegiha: ki-ba-naⁿ (k-ba-naⁿ) - to run a race; racing [JOD-Omaha]; ʰki-ba-noⁿ (ḳ-ba-noⁿ) - to run a race; to race [FL-Osage]; ʰki-pa-naⁿ (ʰkipną) - race; run in a competition, perhaps lit., place oneself first [CQ-Osage]

 

town, village

toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą)

taⁿ (tt̨), toⁿ (tt̨) - town [MS, OM]

toⁿ (ton) - town or village (ville ou village) [GI]

toⁿ (t́ng) - town; name of all big cities [ASG]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ (nsni ttǫ) - Baxter Springs, Kansas, cold water town

ex: toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti (ttǫ nįkʰtti) - village/at the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: de niⁿ e-shoⁿ-hi haⁿ-ka toⁿ niⁿkʰe-ti hi (de n̨ eǫh h̨ka ttǫ nįkʰtti h) - after he was going for some time, he arrived at the Haⁿ-ka village [JOD]

ex: pa-ze de haⁿ-ke taⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ti ki-wi (ppze d hąk t̨ nįkʰtti kwi) - it was nearly night when they reached the village (reached home) [JOD]

ex: toⁿ ti bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tti bd tta mįkʰ) - Im going to go to town [MS]

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - you go to town! [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why are you going to town? [MS]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta (t̨ nįkʰett) - village/to the cv. ob. [JOD]

ex: toⁿ niⁿ-kʰe-ta aⁿ-ki-niⁿ kda-we (t̨ nįkʰett ̨kinį kdwe) - they took it from me and returned to the village [JOD]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - to town [AG]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - Im going to town [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de ta-aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - we are going to town [AG]

ex: toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi (tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa) - village/where/soever (=anywhere)/there/it sits not [JOD]

ex: iⁿ-ta-te, toⁿ ha-ki e-hi-te e-ti niⁿ-kʰa-zhi hi taⁿ kaⁿ aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe e-te te (įtttte, tt̨ hak ehitt ett nįkʰa hi t̨ ką-ąn̨kʰe tte tt) - father, is there not a village anywhere, I wonder if we are alone [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ) - this direction/village/there/it sits [JOD]

ex: de shoⁿ-hi toⁿ e-ti niⁿ-kʰe e-de, i-ke (d ̨hi tt̨ ett nįkʰ ed, ik) - sure enough, there is a village in this direction, he said to her [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą) - then/there/village/distant/when [JOD]

ex: koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti toⁿ ko-zhi taⁿ o-zha i-ki-pʰe tʰi-we (kįttą tti tt̨ kko tą a kipʰe tʰwe) - then from a distant village they came to invite them to dance [JOD]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą)

ex: toⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town, cluster of lodges, indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - town, village, city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

taⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨ ka), taⁿ o-zhi-ka (tt̨-oka) - village [ASG]

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little; taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

 

o-taⁿ-knaⁿ (ttąkną) - tribe, nation

cf. toⁿ (ttǫ), taⁿ (ttą) - town, contraction of toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put into

Dhegiha: o-taⁿ-maⁿ-laⁿ (otⁿmaⁿlaⁿ) - to dwell within village [Kaw]

Dhegiha: toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (tⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - tribe, nation, people, city, town; tribe or nation dwelling in a town or village [Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (toⁿwoⁿgthoⁿ) - village, town [Omaha]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ (ṭⁿ-woⁿ-gthoⁿ) - the common name for the gens (clans) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ-la (ʰt̨wąla) - clan [CQ-Osage]

 

o-tti-kdiⁿ (ttikdį) - village

cf. ti (tti) - house, tent, dwelling; o-tti (tti) - camp, dwell, camp in or by, a place to camp; kniⁿ (knį), kdiⁿ (kdį) - sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp; o-kniⁿ (okn̨) - sit in, dwell in, live in

Dhegiha: u-ti (ut) - to remain in camp for one night, as when the people are going on a hunting expedition [Omaha/Ponca]; u-ti (uti) - location [Omaha]; u-ʰtsi (u-ṭs) - dwell; an abode; abiding place; a home; a site suitable for a house or camp [FL-Osage]; o-tsi (ocí) - camp, encamp in (as in a valley) or by (as by a stream); go camping [Kaw]

 

ti-kde (ttikd) - village, collection of lodges; to set up housekeeping, to live together in same tent

ex: ti-kde ke ta (ttikd ke tta) - lodges(=village)/to the many [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke ta e-ti te na-ha! i-ke i-ya e-kaⁿ niⁿ-kʰe (was ttikd ke tta tti tt nah! ik iy ek̨ nįkʰe) - do not go to the village of the black bears! his grandmother said to him, it is said [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke (ttikd ke) - lodge(plural)/the (plural) inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: hoⁿ tʰe-ti ti-kde ke o-ka-ki-xe-xti zhe, i-ya (hǫ tʰetti ttikd ke okkixe-xti e, iy) - that very night he dunged all around the lodges, it is said (they say) [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the (plural) inanimate objects [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi taⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi tą) - when he arrived to the black bear lodges [JOD]

ex: ti-kde ke-ti (ttikd ke-tti) - lodges/at the plural [JOD]

ex: wa-sa ti-kde ke-ti hi naⁿ (was ttikd ke-tti hi ną) - when he arrived to the black bear village [JOD]

Dhegiha: ti-gthe (tgthe) - to live/dwell in a lodge [Omaha/Ponca]; ti-gthe (tigthe) - home [Omaha]; ʰtsi-gthe (ṭs-gthe) - to reside, to dwell, to set up and keep house [FL-Osage]; ʰtsi-le (ʰcle) - live, reside, make a home, set up a household, set up housekeeping, house, home, family [CQ-Osage]

 

towns, names of the five original Quapaw towns

When the Kwapa were discovered by the French they dwelt in five villages, described by the early chroniclers as the Imaha (Imaham, Imahao), Capaha, Toriman, Tonginga (Doginga, Topinga), and Southois (Atotchasi, Ossouteouez). Three of these village names are known to all the tribe: 1, o-ka-xpa-xti (uʞqpa-qti), Real Kwapa; 2, ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (t-u--di-maⁿ) (Toriman), t-u-a-d maⁿ (of Mrs Stafford); 3, o-zo ti-o-we (u-z-ti--wĕ) (Southois, etc). The fourth was taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (taⁿ́waⁿ jʞa), Small village. Judging from analogy and the fact that the fifth village, i-ma-ha (imaha), was the farthest up Arkansas river, that village name must have meant, as did the term Omaha, the upstream people. [JOD]

 

i-maⁿ-ha (imąha), i-ma-ha (imaha) - a Quapaw village, the up river Quapaw village

i-ma-ha (măha) - a band of Omaha, or perhaps more probably Kwp, who lived with the Ḱdohad́cho, but retained their own distinct language. There are still a few living with the Caddo, but they retain only the name. It will be remembered that when the Caddo lived in eastern Louisiana the Arkansas or Kwp were their nearest neighbors on the north, and these Imaha may have been a part of the Kwp who lived upstream (maha) on the Arkansas. The Caddo call the Omaha tribe by the same name. [J. Mooney-Caddo]

ma-ha (maha) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. ki-maⁿ-haⁿ (kmąhą) - against the wind or current; ki-maⁿ-haⁿ o-ka-xde (kkmąhą okxde) - face upstream, face the wind; i-maⁿ (im̨) - the other; i-maⁿ-ta (im̨tta) - at or on the other side

Dhegiha: u-ma-ha (u-m-ha), u-maⁿ-haⁿ (umaⁿ-haⁿ) - those that went upstream, the Omahas, a tribe of the egiha group of the Siouan Family, see Paka, Wajaje, K͓aⁿze, and Ugaqpa [JOD-Omaha]; u-moⁿ-hoⁿ (u-mⁿ-hoⁿ) - the Osage name for Omaha [FL-Osage]; o-maⁿ-haⁿ (om̨hą) - Omaha (tribe or tribal member) [CQ-Osage]; o-ma-ha (omha), oⁿ-moⁿ-hoⁿ (oⁿmⁿhoⁿ) - Omaha tribe or people, those who went upstream, so called because they (as well as the Ponca, Osage, and Kansa) went up stream when they left the Quapaw [Kaw]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ (-moⁿ) - the other one [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ (mą) - which, other [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-kshe (imoⁿkshe) - the other of the two [FL-Osage]; i-maⁿ-kshe (mąke) - other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-cʰe (mącʰe) - next (one), other (one) [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-the (mąe) - one or the other [CQ-Osage]; i-maⁿ-ʰta-ha (mąʰtaha), i-ma-ʰta-ha (maʰtaha) - the other way [CQ-Osage]

 

o-ka-xpa-xti (okxpaxti) - town name: Real Quapaws, one of the 5 villages; spelled Kappa, Cappa, Cappaha, etc.

ga-pa (gappa) - The following account of the Gappa Nation was received from Baptiste Imbeau, an aged French Creole, who heard it from Paheka (Dry-Head), grandfather of Heckaton, the present principal Chief. When we abandoned our former lands, we sat out without knowing whither we were going. Our motive for leaving the country we occupied was the scarcity of game. We were too numerous at that time; we had as many as 1600 warriors. On arriving at the mouth of the Ohio River (n tonka), our chiefs determined on separating the nation, in order to procure the means of subsistence with greater facility. Our former name was Mahas. Those who followed the chief Wajinka-sa (black-bird) retained that appellation and now inhabit the country on the upper waters of the Missouri. Our chief, whose name was Pa-heka, chose to alter our name, and called us Gappa. [G. Izard]

cf. o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw; xti (xti) - very, real, fully; o-ka-xpa-de (okxpade) - knock off, cause to fall off; o-ka-xpa i-de (okxpa id) - south, wind or quarter, conveys idea of going downstream; ka-xpa (kxpa) - south wind

Dhegiha: u-ga-xpa (u-g-qpa) - those who went downstream, the Kwapas or Quapaws, they were known to the Illinois tribes as the Arkansas or Alkansas [JOD-Omaha]; u-ga-xpa (ugaxpa) - Quapaw Tribe [Omaha]; u-ga-xpa ga-xa (u-g-xpa ga-xa) - Quapaw Creek, Okla [FL-Osage]; o-ka-xpa (okxpa) - Quapaw Indians [CQ-Osage]; o-ga-xpa (ogxpa) - Quapaw tribe or people, the down-stream people, so called because their ancestors went down the Mississippi, while the Omahas, Ponca, Osages, and Kansa, went up that stream, after leaving the mouth of the Ohio (River). The Ogxpa or Kwapas have been called Shappas, Shapahas, Kapahas, Quappas, Quapaws, etc. They were also known in early colonial days as the Akansa or Arkansa [Kaw]

 

o-zo ti-o-we (oz ttiow) - bottom land with trees, name of one of the original Quapaw towns

o-zo ti-o-hi (oz ttihi) - bottom land near a river, down on bottom

Dhegiha: u-zu (u-) - lowland forest [FL-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - lowland, low wooded level [CQ-Osage]; o-zo (oz) - 1) wooded area, bottom land with timber; timber; oz tⁿga ji ay gⁿyabe che a, pahⁿle ch. They first desired to go to an extensive bottom land, abounding in timber, where Junction City now stands; 2) hilltops JOD uses this term in reference to the noⁿnⁿbahu t, a kind of grape or berry found on the oz (hill tops) but the term more commonly refers to lowlands, as in sense 1. [Kaw]

Dhegiha: u-zu u-gthoⁿ (-u-u-gthoⁿ) - lowland forest in the bend of a stream [FL-Osage]; u-zu i-ha zhiⁿ-ga (u--i-ha zhiⁿ-ga) - at one time there was a large bend in the stream, which was nearly closed; the meaning of the name is small mouth; it is near the u-zu (u-u) or woods, what is known as Bartlesville, Kans. This was the site of the fourth camp in the fisrt trail, also of the third trail [FL-Osage]; o-zo-liⁿ (ozliⁿ) - village in the bottom land with timber, the name of a village, literally, they live in the timber. JOD identifies this as a proper town, that is, it refers to a specific village, also called cexliⁿ village on a highland or lowland level, destitute of trees. The second name seems to contradict the first name but MRs comments might be intended to clarify: There used to be three branches, like Pawhuska, and some of them lived in that and some of them lived along the creek, Gaxoliⁿ and Zaⁿjliⁿ. Those people lived in the [_?_], why they used to live north of Kaw there, at Washunga there. And those others, they used to [_?_] on top of the hill. And I think they called Waxga-oliⁿ where the cactus grows. Zaⁿjliⁿ is where they live in the timber, zaⁿj. And Gax-oliⁿ, they used to live along the edge of [creek?] over there at Washunga. [Kaw]

 

taⁿ-waⁿ zhi-ka (tt̨wą ka) - Small Town, name of one of the five original Quapaw towns

taⁿ zhi-ka (tⁿ zhika) - village [ASG]

cf. taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą), toⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą) - town, village; toⁿ (ttǫ) - town, contraction of taⁿ-waⁿ (tt̨wą); zhi-ka (ka) - small, little

Dhegiha: ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga (ṭⁿ-woⁿ zhiⁿ-ga) - a small town; a hamlet; Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River, near the mouth of wa-gth-shka i-a bi (a creek) [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ zhiⁿ-ka (ʰt̨wą įka) - Little Village, an old village of the Osage on the Neosho River [CQ-Osage]

Dhegiha: taⁿ-waⁿ (tⁿ-waⁿ) - a cluster of lodges, a camp, village, or Indian town [JOD-Omaha/Ponca]; toⁿ-woⁿ (tⁿwoⁿ) - camp, village, town; cluster of lodges, Indian town [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰtoⁿ-woⁿ (ṭoⁿ-woⁿ) - a town or city [FL-Osage]; ʰtaⁿ-waⁿ (ʰt̨wą) - town [CQ-Osage]; taⁿ-maⁿ (tⁿmaⁿ) - town, camp, village, settlement, city [Kaw]

 

ti-o-a-di-maⁿ (ttodimą) - one of the five original Quapaw villages mentioned in early French narratives, often spelled Toriman or Thoriman by the French [JOD]; the village of tourima or Pommes de Terre (potato, apple or fruit of the ground) is a league to the west distant from Ougapa [La Harpe]

 

trachea, windpipe

to-te o-xi-xi-we (ttte oxxiwe) - windpipe, trachea

cf. to-te (ttte) - throat

ex: ta to-te xi-xi-we (tta tttexixwe) - deers windpipe

Dhegiha: nu-de xi-xi-be (nde qiqbe) - the trachea or windpipe [Omaha/Ponca]; nu-de xi-xi-be (nde xixibe) - windpipe [Omaha]; ʰto-dse xi-be (ṭ-dse xi-be), do-dse xi-be (d-dse xi-be) - the windpipe of an animal [FL-Osage]; do-je xu-xu-be (dóje xuxúbe) - trachea, windpipe [Kaw]

 

 

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