English to Quapaw Dictionary

Quapaw Sources Dhegiha Sources



o-di-zaⁿ (diz̨) - among

Dhegiha: u-thi-zoⁿ (uthizoⁿ) - middle [Omaha]; o-thi-zaⁿ (ozą) - be among others in, be a member of, belong to, be a part of, be among [CQ-Osage]; o-yu-zaⁿ (oyzaⁿ) - to be many, to be a lot together [Kaw]

o-di-zaⁿ-ti (dizątt) - among, in the middle of

Dhegiha: u-thi-zoⁿ-a-di (uthzoⁿadi) - in middle, at, by, in, or to the middle of some other place, not here [Omaha/Ponca]

o-zhaⁿ wa-kniⁿ-zhi (ą wakn̨i) - enemy (within the tribe), "a bad person to sleep among"


koi-she-naⁿ (kien̨) - that amount, that quantity

cf. koi (ki) - there; de-she-naⁿ (deen̨) - quantity, this much, many

Dhegiha: ka-she-naⁿ (kaaną) - closing of a prayer, amen, be ended, finished, thats all, something is finished [CQ-Osage]; ga-she-hnaⁿ (gashhnaⁿ) - thats all, just this much, that is enough [Kaw]

ska-di (skdi), ska-ti (skti) - coinage, amount, measure, from iskali in Muskogean < Fr. escalin

cf. de-ska-de (dskade) - bit, 12 and a half cents

ex: ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents

ex: ska-di mi-xti pe-ta-yoⁿ (skdi mxti ppetyǫ) - fifteen cents [AG]


miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article

cf. miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one; mi-aⁿ-pa miⁿ (mįpa m̨) - month, lunar month

Dhegiha: wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ (wiⁿ) - one, single [FL-Osage]; wiⁿ (wį) - a, an, one, single, any one, one of a group [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ (miⁿ) - one, a, an; indefinite article [Kaw]

miⁿ-xti (m̨xti), mi-a-xti (maxti) - one

cf. miⁿ (mį) - one, a, indefinite article; xti (xti) - very, real, fully

Dhegiha: wiⁿ-a-xchi (wiⁿqchi) - exactly one; just one [Omaha/Ponca]; wiⁿ-xtsi (wiⁿ́-xtsi) - one of a kind, a single piece [FL-Osage]; wi-xtsi (w̨xci) - one, a, an [CQ-Osage]; miⁿ-xtsi (mⁿxci) - one, just one [Kaw]

ancestral gens

haⁿ-ka (h̨ka) - ancestral gens

ex: haⁿ-ka (háʞa) - ancestral gens [JOD]

ex: haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - Haⁿ-ka, male personal name [MS]

ex: wa-zhiⁿ haⁿ-ka (wąhą́ka) - Haⁿ-ka Bird, Angel, Sacred Bird, Ancestral or First Bird, male personal name [MS]

ex: pe-te haⁿ-ka (pptte hą́ka) - Fire Haⁿ-ka, male personal name [MS]

ex: haⁿ-ka mi te-xi (hą́ka mi ttxi) - Difficult Female Haⁿ-ka, female personal name [FR]

ex: haⁿ-ka ska (hą́ka sk) - White Haⁿ-ka, male personal name [MS]

Dhegiha: hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́ga) - leader or first, implies the idea of ancient, or first, people; those who led, moiety or tribal half representing the earth and its water [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; huⁿ-ga (huⁿ́ga) - ancient one, the one who goes before, leader, peace as symbolized by a little child [Omaha-Fletcher/LaFlesche]; haⁿ-ka (hák͓a) - the name of the gentes on the right side of the Osage tribal circle [JOD-Osage]; hoⁿ-ga (hoⁿ́-ga) - The-Sacred-One, personal name [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka), hoⁿ-ga (h̜ga) - the name of the two great tribal divisions of the Osage Tribe, the division representing the earth with its water and dry land.  The word signifies sacred or holy, an object that is venerated.  It is also the name of a subdivision representing the dry land of the earth.  The dark-plummed eagle is spoken of by this term, because of its symbolic use; a child chosen as an emblem of innocence in a peace ceremony is called Hoⁿ-ga.  The origin of the word, being obscure, can not be analyzed [FL-Osage]; haⁿ-ka (hą́ka) - sacred, holy, bald eagle, dark-plummed eagle, earth division of the Osage tribe, innocence emblem in peace ceremony, a child [CQ-Osage]; haⁿ-ga zhiⁿ-ga (hⁿga zhⁿga) - little eagle gens [Kaw]; haⁿ-ga taⁿ-ga (hⁿga tⁿga) - black eagle [Kaw]; haⁿ-ga taⁿ-ga (hⁿga tⁿga) - eagle clan, gens, named after the black eagle [Kaw]


shi (i) - again, and, also

Dhegiha: shi (shi) - and, and then, again [Omaha/Ponca]; shi (shi) - again, and [FL-Osage]; shi (i) - again, more [CQ-Osage]; shi (shi) - again, and [Kaw]

shoⁿ (ǫ) - and, still, yet

Dhegiha: shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - still, yet, at all events, at any rate, and so, thus [Omaha/Ponca]; shoⁿ (shoⁿ) - by and by, after awhile, eventually [Kaw]

a-taⁿ (attą) - and

e-toⁿ (ett̨) - and, but

ta (tt) - also, too, and


ta-ti-o-kda-kʰaⁿ o-ka-xde (ttttikdakʰ̨ okxde) - facing at right angles toward the wind


i-ki-shi-ke (kike) - to be angry i-da-ki-shi-ke (idkike) - I , i-da-ki-shi-ke (dakike) - you

i-ki-shi-ke (kike) - mad, angry [MS]

cf. shi-ke (ke) - bad, ugly; wa-zhiⁿ shi-ke (wą ke) - mean [MS]

o-xnaⁿ (xną) - angry, irritated, cross

o-xnaⁿ (o-hu-nu) - mean [LH]

ex: shoⁿ-ke o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - mean dog [MS]

ex: shoⁿ-ke wi-ta o-xnaⁿ iⁿ (̨ke wtta xną į) - my dog is mean [MS]

Dhegiha: u-xthoⁿ shtoⁿ (-xthoⁿ-shtoⁿ) - to be cross, disagreeable [FL-Osage]; o-laⁿ (lą), (olą), o-loⁿ (ol̨ǫ), o-dla (dla) - pout, sulk, sulky [CQ-Osage] . xthoⁿ (xthoⁿ) - to sulk, pout, peeved [FL-Osage]; loⁿ (l̨), laⁿ (l̨) - mad, angry [CQ-Osage]

o-xnaⁿ ka-xe (xną kγe) - angry, cross, to make


si ta-xe (sittxe) - ankle

si ta-xe (sittxe) - ankle [MS]

cf. si (si) - foot; ta-xe (ttxe) - knob, knobby, knot

Dhegiha: si ta-xe (sitxe) - ankle, lump at each side of ankle, protrusion of the ankle bones [Omaha/Ponca]; si ta-xe (i txe) - ankle bones [Omaha]

si ta-xe wa-hi (sittxe wah) - ankle bone

            cf. si ta-xe (sittxe) - ankle; wa-hi (wah) - bone


ha (ha) - another

e-zhi (i) - another, different

Dhegiha: e-zhi (-zhi) - not that kind [FL-Osage]; e-zhi (ezhi) - odd, unusual, of a different kind, inappropriate, unsuitable, different, other, otherwise, strange [CQ-Osage]; e-zhi (zhi) - other, different, another [Kaw]


zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka (ąh̨ka) - ant

zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka taⁿ-ka (ąh̨ka tt̨ka) - ant, large black

zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka zi zhi-ka (̨h̨k zi ka) - ant, small yellow (red)

zhaⁿ-hiⁿ-shka zhi-ka (ąh̨ka ka) - ant, small black

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ-gthi-shka (zhⁿgthshka) - ant, wood insect [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ-gthi-shka (zhoⁿgthishka) - ant [Omaha]; zha-biu-shka (zh-biu-ka) - ant [FL-Osage]; zha-pu-shka (puka) - ant [CQ-Osage]


ta-chʰo-ke (ttačʰke) - antelope

Dhegiha: ta-chu-ge (tachge) - antelope [Omaha]; ta-chʰu-ge (tachʰge) - antelope [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta-tsu-ge (ṭa-ts-ge) - antelope [FL-Osage]; ta-cho-ge (tachge) - antelope [Kaw]


he (he) - horn, antler

he (he˙) - horn, antler [FS]

cf. ta he (ttah) - antlers, deer

Dhegiha: he (he) - horn [Omaha/Ponca]; he (he) - horn [FL-Osage]; he (hé) - horn, cow or buffalo [CQ-Osage]; he (he) - antlers, horn [Kaw]


iⁿ-zhiⁿ-xe (̨įγ) - anus


i-hi-ta (hitta) - to be anxious to do something aⁿ-naⁿ-hi-ta (ąn̨hitta) - I, i-di-hi-ta (dihitt) - you, we-hi-ta-we (whittaw) - we

Dhegiha: i-hi-dse (-hi-dse) - eager, earnest, impatient [FL-Osage]; i-hi-tse (hice) - be anxious for, be eager that something take place, be impatient, hurry someone along, be ready [CQ-Osage]

o-hi-ta (ohtta) - be anxious to do something

            Dhegiha: u-hi-da-zhi (uhdazhi) - anxious [Omaha]; u-hi-ta-zhi (uhitazhi) - eager [Omaha]

o-ki-hi-ta (okhitta) - be anxious for one's own o-a-ki-hi-ta (okihitta) - I, o-da-ki-hi-ta (odkihitta) - you, oⁿ-ko-ki-hi-ta-we (ǫkkihittawe) - we


ha-ke hi-te (hak hitt), ha-ke i-te (hak itt) - wherever, anywhere

ha-ke hi-te (ho-ge-i hi-t) - sit anywhere [LH]

cf. ha-ki (hki) - where; hi-te (hitt) - indefinite pronoun, (what)-ever; i-te (itt) - indefinite pronoun marker, -ever


ho-mi-ta-ta (hmitttta) - monkey, trickster

ho-mi-ta-ta (hmitttta) - monkey [MS]


            miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (mįn̨ną) - ones, by, one each, one apiece

cf. wa-da miⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (wad mⁿnąn̨) - hourly; na-na (-nan), naⁿ-naⁿ (-n̨ną) - distributive of numerals; ha-na-ska naⁿ-naⁿ (hnaska n̨ną) - how big (is) each, (distributive)

ex: naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (nąpnąn̨) - two each, by twos, two apiece

ex: da-bniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįn̨ną) - threes, by; 3 apiece

ex: to-wa naⁿ-naⁿ (townąn̨) - four each, by fours

ex: sa-taⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (sttąn̨ną) - five apiece, by fives

ex: sha-pe naⁿ-naⁿ (ppe n̨ną) - sixes, by. 6 apiece, at a time

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpnąn̨) - seven apiece, by sevens

ex: pe-da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (ppedbnįn̨ną) - eight apiece, at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka n̨ną) - nines, by

ex: kde-bdaⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdąn̨ną) - tens, by, 10 apiece/at a time

ex: da-bniⁿ a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (dbnįknįn̨ną) - thirteens, by; 13 apiece

ex: sha-pe a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (app knį n̨ną) - sixteens, by. 16 each

ex: pe-naⁿ-pa a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (ppnąpakn̨nąn̨) - seventeen apiece, at a time

ex: shaⁿ-ka a-kniⁿ naⁿ-naⁿ (̨kka knį n̨ną) - nineteens, by. 19 each

ex: kde-bnaⁿ naⁿ-pa naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbnąn̨pan̨ną) - twenties, by, 20 apiece

ex: kde-bdaⁿ da-bni naⁿ-naⁿ (kdbdądbnin̨ną) - thirties, by, 30 each

Dhegiha: wiⁿ thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wiⁿthoⁿthoⁿ) - each [Omaha]; wiⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ (wⁿ-thoⁿ-thoⁿ) - one apiece, one by one [FL-Osage]; miⁿ yaⁿ-ye (mⁿ yaⁿye) - one apiece, one to each, distributive [Kaw]


            di-naⁿ-pe (din̨pe) - cause to appear, show bdi-naⁿ-pe (bdnąpe) - I, ti-naⁿ-pe (ttnąpe) - you

cf. ka-naⁿ-pe (kan̨pe) - uncover, unearth; naⁿ-naⁿ-pe (nąn̨pe) - scuff into view with the feet; bi-naⁿ-pe (bin̨pe) - push out into the open; ba-naⁿ-pe (ban̨pe) - push into view; mi wa-e-naⁿ-pe (mi wen̨pe) - sunrise

Dhegiha: i-thoⁿ-be (-thoⁿ-be) - to appear, come into site [FL-Osage]; i-thoⁿ-pe (ǫpe) - appear [CQ-Osage]; i-yoⁿ-be (yoⁿbe) - appear, come into view, rise, emerge, as from water [Kaw]


kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple [MS, OM]

kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe (kk̨tte įxe) - apple

kaⁿ-te . (kongteh - ipicheh) - apple (pomme) [GI]

Dhegiha: koⁿ-de (kⁿde) - a plum, plums [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰko-dse (ḳoⁿ́-dse) - plums, any kind of fruit, as plums, peaches, apples, applied to fruit in general [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ-tse (ʰką́ące) - apple, fruit [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ-je (kje) - plum [Kaw]

apple juice

kaⁿ-te ni (kkąttni) - apple juice

kaⁿ-te ni (kkąttni) - apple juice [MS]

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; ni (ni) - water, liquid, stream, lake

            Dhegiha: ʰkaⁿ-tse ni (ʰką́ącenii) - fruit juice [CQ-Osage]

apple seed

            kaⁿ-te si (kk̨tte s) - apple seed [MS]

kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe si (kk̨tte įxe s) - apple seed

                        cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; si (si) - seed, pit, grain, kernel

apple tree

            kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree

            kaⁿ-te hi (kkątthi) - apple tree [MS]

            kaⁿ-te iⁿ-xe hi (kk̨tte įx hi) - apple tree

cf. kaⁿ-te (kk̨tte) - apple; hi (hi) - tree, bush, vine, stalk, leg


            i-di-shki (diki) - apply substance like salve i-bdi-shki (bdiki) - I, i-ti-shki (ttiki) - you

cf. wa-di-shki (wadki) - wash [MS]; wa-bi-shki (wabki) - rub, scour when washing


wa-tʰe di-shiⁿ (watʰ dį) - apron [OM]

cf. wa-tʰe (watʰ) - skirt, long skirt, dress; o-di-shiⁿ (odį) - wrap, fold in a bundle

e-to-ha-knaⁿ (ttohkną) - apron

cf. e-to-ha (ettha) - ahead, in front, in advance; knaⁿ (kną) - set, put si/in; o-knaⁿ (okn̨) - put sg/si/in or cloth into; a-knaⁿ (kną), a-kdaⁿ (kdą) - put a singular, sitting, inanimate (curvilinear--JOD) or cloth, paper, plaster, etc. object upon a surface

o-to-ha-knaⁿ (ttohkną) - apron


            si-o-ski-ta (siskitt) - arch of the sole of the foot

                        cf: si (si) - foot

Dhegiha: si-u-noⁿ-ski-da (inoⁿkida) - hollow below the instep of the foot [Omaha]; si-u-ski-da (i--ki-da) - the hollow in the sole of the human foot [FL-Osage]; si-o-ski (sioski) - arch of the foot [CQ-Osage]; si-o-ski-da (siskida) - arch of the foot [Kaw]


ni-kʰe (nikʰ) - 2sg continuative auxiliary sitting, you

ex: hoⁿ ni-kʰe (hǫ nikʰ) - how are you? [OM]

ex: ta-taⁿ ni-kʰe (ttatt̨ nkʰ) - you are drinking

ex: ta-taⁿ shka-xe ni-kʰe (tttą kγe nikʰ) - what are you making? [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

ex: jhi-e ma-kaⁿ sha shkoⁿ-ta ni-kʰe (jhe makką́a kǫtt nikʰ) - Do you want coffee? [AG]

Dhegiha: niⁿ-kʰe (niⁿkʰe) - 2sg aux [JOD-Omaha]; niⁿ-kshe (nįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future) for 2nd sg. sitting subject [CQ-Osage]; hniⁿ-khe (hniⁿkh) - you (sg), while sitting [Kaw]

aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (ąnįkʰe), oⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (̨nįkʰe) - 1du continuative auxiliary sitting, I and one other

ex: kdi, toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de t[a]aⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kdi, ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - come on, we are going to town [AG]

Dhegiha: aⁿ-thiⁿ-kshe (ąįk) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for sitting or lying down 1st dual subject we two [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-niⁿ-khe (aⁿniⁿkh) - we, while standing [Kaw]

ni-kʰa-she (nikʰe) - 2pl continuative auxiliary sitting, you all

ex: e-che-zha, i-za-ni i-shpa-hoⁿ ni-kʰa-she (ečča, zan pahǫ nkʰe) - goodness, you all that understand (you all that are understanding) [AG]

Dhegiha: noⁿ-ka-she (nⁿ-ka-she) - you who are sitting there [FL-Osage]; naⁿ-kxa-she (nąkxe) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd pl. sitting subject [CQ-Osage]; hnaⁿ-kha-she (hnaⁿkhshe) - you (pl). while sitting, while standing, positional continuative [Kaw]

ni-kʰa (nikʰ) - 3pl continuative auxiliary sitting, they

ex: ki-knoⁿ-ke ta ni-kʰa (kiknǫk  tta  nikʰ) - they're married (they're going to be married) [MS]

ex: ki-knoⁿ-ke ta ni-kʰa iⁿ-chʰoⁿ i (kiknǫk tta nikʰ ̨čʰǫ i) - theyre married (theyre going to be married, now) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-kxa (akxa) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person sg. or pl. nonmoving subject that is present with speaker [CQ-Osage]; a-kha (akh) - he/she/it (animate), while standing or moving, singular and plural, continuative singular/standing/animate [Kaw]

da-tʰaⁿ-she (dtʰąe) - 2sg continuative auxiliary standing, you

Dhegiha: tha-toⁿ-she (th-toⁿ-sh) - 2sg aux [JOD-Omaha]; tha-toⁿ-she (tha-toⁿ-she) - standing [FL-Osage]; tha-txaⁿ-she (atx̨e) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past) for standing 2nd sg. or 2nd pl. subject, may also be used for imminent future action of state [CQ-Osage]; ya-kha-she (yakhshe) - you (sg), while standing [Kaw]

aⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą), oⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (̨katʰą) - 1du continuative auxiliary standing, I and one other

ex: aⁿ-ka-kde taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (ą́kakd tta ̨katʰą) - we are going home (me and you are going home) [MS]

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi tta ǫkatʰ̨) - later on, we will reach there (where you are)

Dhegiha: oⁿ-ga-tʰoⁿ (oⁿgatʰoⁿ) - 1pl aux [JOD-Omaha]; oⁿ-ga-tʰoⁿ (ⁿ-ga-ṭoⁿ) - we who are here [FL-Osage]; aⁿ-ka-txaⁿ (ąkatx̨) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for standing (sometimes lying down) 1st pl. subject, imminent future action or state, regardless of whether subject is standing [CQ-Osage]; aⁿ-ga-khaⁿ (aⁿgkhaⁿ) - we, while standing [Kaw]

ni-she (ni), da-ni-she (dani) - 2sg continuative auxiliary moving, you

ex: hoⁿ ni-she (hǫ ni) - how are you? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ta ni-she (haǫ tta ni) - what are you going to do with it? [MS]

ex: ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (haǫ ni) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

ex: jhi-e ha-zhoⁿ ni-she (ǰe hǫ n) - how are you (how are you doing)? [AG]

Dhegiha: tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thiⁿshe) - 2sg aux [JOD-Omaha]; tha-thiⁿ-she (tha-thⁿ-she) - you who are going [FL-Osage]; thaiⁿ-she (aį) - continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present or past time) for moving 2nd sg. subject (action or state may continue from past to present, corresponding to English perfect have/had been [CQ-Osage]; ya-yi-she (yayish) - you (sg), while moving (or not visible) [Kaw]

niⁿ (nį), (nyį) - be in a location, exist bniⁿ (bn̨) - I, tiⁿ (tt̨) - you

ex: dedtą bniⁿ (dedtaⁿ p͓nⁿ), dketitaⁿ bniⁿ (dk͓ettaⁿ p͓nⁿ) - I am Dhegiha [JOD]

Dhegiha: thiⁿ (iⁿ) - to be [Omaha/Ponca]; niⁿ (n̨), thiⁿ (̨) - be a certain way, live as, exist as, be characterized by the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase [CQ-Osage]; yiⁿ (yiⁿ) - to be, to be so, to be such a one, indicates permanent or long-term condition [Kaw]


a-ki-ki (kkiki) - to dispute; argue over something such as the division of a thing a-ki-ki (akkik) - I, a-da-ki-ki (dakkiki) - you

Dhegiha: i-e a-ki-ki-tha (iakikitha) - argument, quarrel [Omaha]; a-ʰki-tha (-ḳi-tha) - to contend as in a fight [FL-Osage]; a-ʰki-e (ʰkie) - talk for or against, talk up or talk down, as when expressing ones emotions with respect to some topic, take up for, argue on behalf of, take someones side as an attorney at law argues on behalf of a client [CQ-Osage]


            ki-ta (ktta), gi-ta (gtta) - arise, get up

ex: gi-ta (gitt) - Get up! [MS, AG]

ex: jhi-e gi-ta (ǰe gtta) - you get up, you're getting up [AG]

ex: si-ke gi-ta . o-sti-te niⁿ-khe (ske gtta . sttte nikh) - (oldest daughter) get up, your slow [AG]

ex: ma-shiⁿ gi-ta (m̨ gtta) - Feather Rising, Feather Getting up, female personal name [MS]

ex: maⁿ-shaⁿ ki-ta (maⁿ́caⁿ k͓ta) - female name [JOD]

ex: mi ska ki-ta (mi sk ktta) - White Sun Gets Up, Comes', female personal name [MS]


            a (a) - arm

a (a) - arm [MS]

a (āā) - arm (bras) [GI]

a (a˙) - arm, shoulder to wrist [FS]

ex: a kʰe (a kʰe) - the arm

ex: a a-ki-pa-xta-na ( kkippxtana) - turn up the sleeve of a shirt or coat

ex: a di-ko-ze ( dike) - bend the arm, bend the arm at the elbow

ex: a o-zhiⁿ-ka ( oįka) - arm below elbow, forearm

ex: a shtoⁿ-ka kʰe (a t̨ka kʰe) - the right arm

ex: a da-ta kʰe ( dtta kʰe) - the left arm

ex: a-koⁿ-ta (akk̨tta) - arm, upper; large tendon in the arm of humans and monkeys and that of the foreleg in oxen, etc.

Dhegiha: a (a) - arm [Omaha/Ponca]; a (a) - arm, that part of the shoulder to and including the hand [FL-Osage]; a (a) - arm [CQ-Osage]; a (a) - arm [Kaw]


            wa-di-shki-ta (wadiktta) - armband

wa-di-shki-ta (wadiktta) - armband [MS]


            to-si (tos) - armpit

Dhegiha: nu-si (nus) - armpit, underarm [Omaha/Ponca]; thu-si (thu-) - armpit, the pit of the arm [FL-Osage]; do-su (dos) - armpits [Kaw]

armpit odor

            to-si zaⁿ-ze (tos z̨ze) - armpit odor

                        cf. to-si (tos) - armpit; zaⁿ-ze (z̨ze) - smell, offensive, strong smell

Dhegiha: zoⁿ-ze (zⁿze) - musky, smelly, strong smelling, like a goat or a male deer [Omaha/Ponca]; zaⁿ-zi (z̨zi) - sour odor, acrid smell, such as armpit odor or onion smell [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ-zhe (̨ąe) - smell as spoiled food smells, have a stinking odor or bad odor, underarm odor [CQ-Osage]


ki-kdi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kkikdkkowįγe) - turn oneself around a-ki-kdi-koiⁿ-xe (akkkdikkoįγe) - I, da-ki-kdi-koiⁿ-xe (dakkkdikkoįγe) - you

Dhegiha: ki-gthi-ku-wiⁿ-xe (kigthi kuwiⁿxe) - turn around [Omaha]; ʰki-li-ʰkoⁿiⁿ-xe (ʰkiliʰkǫįγe) - turn oneself around [CQ-Osage]

ba-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bakkwįγe) - turn, make revolve, push around pa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (ppkkowįγe) - I, shpa-ko-wiⁿ-xe (pkkowįγe) - you

cf. bi-ko-wiⁿ-xe (bikkwįγe) - push, blow in a circle; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe (dikkwįγe) - turn, rotate, pull out of line; di-ko-wiⁿ-xe i-he-de (dikkwįγe ihde) - turn something long

Dhegiha: ba-ʰku-wiⁿ-xe (ba-ḳu-wiⁿ-xe) - to turn by pushing [FL-Osage]; ba-ko-mi-ghe (bakmighe) - turn, spin, cause to revolve in a horizontal or vertical plane by pushing [Kaw]

ka-ko-wiⁿ-xe (kakkwįγe) - turn around, circle a-koiⁿ-xe (koįγe) - I, da-koiⁿ-xe (dkoįγe) - you

Dhegiha: ga-gu-wiⁿ-xe (ga guwiⁿxe) - spin [Omaha]; ga-ko-mi-ghe (gakmigh) - turn, revolve as a windmill or clock, make an object revolve in a horizontal or perpendicular plane, as a wheel, by hitting [Kaw]

ka-koiⁿ-xa-xa (kakįγγa) - go around and around

ta-ko-wiⁿ-xa-xa (tkkowįγγa) - around in circles, "Fire makes him/her/it go around and around"

o-ka-ki-xe (okkixe) - go around something at a distance o-a-ka-ki-xe (okakixe) - I, o-da-ka-ki-xe (odkakixe) - you

                        cf. ho we-ki-xe (ho wkixe) - fish net

Dhegiha: a-gi-xe (-gi-xe) - all around a place [FL-Osage]; a-ki-xe (kiγe) - around, skirting the edge of something, pass by, circle around as in a tipi meeting, go clear around, avoiding the center, move around, be all around, encircle a place or a person, be around, especially in a bothersome way [CQ-Osage]; a-gi-ghe (gighe) - all around [Kaw]

o-di-shaⁿ (odą) - go around in a circle o-bdi-shaⁿ (obdą) - I, o-ti-shaⁿ (ottą) - you, oⁿ-ko-di-shaⁿ-we (ǫkdįwe) - we

                        cf. o-di-shaⁿ maⁿ-niⁿ (odą mąn̨) - stay close by

Dhegiha: u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - go around, circle, to go around in a circle, like the hands of a clock [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-shoⁿ (uthshoⁿ) - circle, encircle, surround, cycle, round [Omaha]; u-thi-shoⁿ (u-th-shoⁿ) - marching around in a circle [FL-Osage]

e-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - around in that direction

cf. ko-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (kta tttta dią) - on that side of; to-ta te-ta i-di-shaⁿ (tta tttta dią) - on this side of

Dhegiha: a-ta-thi-shoⁿ (atthishoⁿ) - in that direction, towards, pertaining to, about [Omaha/Ponca]; e-ʰta-thi-shoⁿ (e-ṭ-thi-shoⁿ) - in the direction of, toward [FL-Osage]

e-ta-do-shi (ttadi) - around by the other side

cf. ko-to-do-shi (ktodi) - beyond, on the other side of; to-to-do-shi (ttodi) - on this side of; mi o-xpe-ta-de-de-do-shi (mi xpettaddedi) - on the west side, toward the sunset; ta-de-de-do-shi (-ttaddedi) - towards, in that direction

o-be-tʰaⁿ (obtʰą) - wrap something around an object o-pe-tʰaⁿ (opptʰą) - I, o-shpe-tʰaⁿ (optʰą) - you, oⁿ-ko-be-tʰaⁿ-we (ǫkbetʰąwe) - we

cf. zhaⁿ a-be-tʰaⁿ (̨abetʰ̨) - barrel, "wood wrapped around"

ex: o-di-be-tʰaⁿ (odibtʰą) - wrap it up [MS]

Dhegiha: u-be-toⁿ (ubetoⁿ) - wrap [Omaha]; u-be-ʰtoⁿ (u-b-ṭoⁿ) - to wrap or envelop [FL-Osage]; o-pe-txaⁿ (optxą) - tie in a bundle or wrap up something specific [CQ-Osage]; o-pe-txaⁿ (petxą) - wrap or tie stuff as a bundle [CQ-Osage]; o-be-khaⁿ (obkhaⁿ) - wrap up, wrap something around an object, to bandage [Kaw]


di-xi (dix) - awaken, arouse bdi-xi (bdxi) - I, ti-xi (ttxi) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xi (thxi) - arouse from sleep [Omaha]; thi-xi [thi-x) - to arouse one from sleep, to awaken [FL-Osage]; thi-xi (ix) - wake [CQ-Osage]; yu-xi (yux) - wake or arouse by pulling, pinching, or shaking [Kaw]

di-xi-xi (dixxi) - awaken, arouse by shaking bdi-xi-xi (bdxixi) - I, ti-xi-xi (ttxixi) - you


kʰi (kʰi) - arrive back at one's own a-kʰi (akʰ) - I, da-kʰi (dakʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-kʰi-we (ǫkkʰiwe) - we

ex: kiⁿ kʰi-taⁿ a-shi-ti i-tʰe-de naⁿ i-ya (kʔ̨ kʰttą itti itʰde ną iy) - when he reached home carrying (the meat) on his back, he piled it outside (the lodge), it is said

Dhegiha: gi (gi) - come back, return, home, to come back, to return home [Omaha]; khi (khi) - arrive home over there, reach a place again, go back to ones own place [Kaw]

tʰi (tʰi) - arrive, to have come here a- tʰi (atʰ) - I, da-tʰi (datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫktʰiwe) - we

ex: de-do tʰi, te kʰe (dedo tʰi, tʔe kʰe) - he/she arrived here, the dead (person)

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - I came [MR]

ex: a-tʰi (atʰ) - I'm coming, I come [MR]

ex: a-tʰi miⁿ-kʰe aⁿ-da-kni hoⁿ-ba-de, de-ho-taⁿ xti, ho-taⁿ miⁿ-kʰe (atʰ mįkʰ ą́dakni hǫ́bade, dehttą xti, httą mįkʰ) - today was a nice day, and I am glad to be here [MR]

ex: ha-tʰaⁿ-ti da-tʰi e (hatʰą́tti datʰ e) - when did you come? [MS]

ex: da-tʰi ta (datʰ tta) - when you come? [MS]

ex: ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - I don't want you coming around my house [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when I'm gone, don't you come around my house [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ o-ho zhi da-tʰi ta (hǫn̜ttą ho i datʰ tta) - how come he (dog) doesn't bark when you come around? [MS]

ex: maⁿ-tʰe da-tʰi hne (mą́tʰe datʰ hn) - come back inside [MS]

ex: shi-naⁿ aⁿ-ki-toiⁿ tʰi hne (ną ąkitoį tʰi hn) - come back and see me again (request) [MS]

Dhegiha: a-ti (at) - arrive here, came [Omaha]; ʰtsi (ṭsi) - to come, has come [FL-Osage]; a-tsʰi (acʰ) - arrive here, come here, motion accomplished, reach as a location or place [CQ-Osage]; chi (chi) - arrive here, arrive over there, arrive at a place not his home for first time [Kaw]

a-kda tʰi (kda tʰ) - arrive here (for the first time) to this place (not one's home) to get one's own object (horse, child, gun, etc.) a-kda a-tʰi (kda atʰ) - I, a-da-kda da-tʰi (adkda datʰ) - you, oⁿ-ka-kda oⁿ-ka-tʰi-we (ǫkkda ǫktʰiwe) - we

cf. a-kda de (kda d) - go after, fetch one's own; a-kda kde (kda kd) - go homeward for one's own

a-ki tʰi (ak tʰi) - to have arrived here to get someone's a-ki a-tʰi (ki tʰi) - I, a-shki da-tʰi (ak datʰ) - you

ki-tʰi (ktʰi) - to have arrived to/for someone aⁿ-tʰi (̨tʰi) - I, di-tʰi (dtʰi) - you

hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been pʰi (pʰi) - I, shi (i) - you, oⁿ-ka-hi (ǫkhi) - we dual

ex: a-shi-ti hi (itti hi) - she arrived outside

ex: a-shi-oⁿ-he-taⁿ she-ta oⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ-ka-tʰaⁿ (iǫhttą tta ǫkhi ttąkatʰ̨ [tta ǫkatʰ̨]) - later on, we will reach there, where you are

ex: ni-ka-shi-ka za-ni hi a-shi-ti kda-naⁿ-we i-ya (nkkaika zan hi itti kdnąwe iy) - all of the people went again from the interior of the hill, it is said

ex: ha-ki shi e (hki i e) - where have you been? [MS]

Dhegiha: hi (hi) - to have been there, reached there [Omaha/Ponca]; a-hi (ahi) - approach, arrive there [Omaha]; a-hi (a-h) - he has been to [FL-Osage]; hi (h), a-hi (ah) - go there, motion accomplished, come there, arrive there, be there, be in attendance, stop in, go by, come by, become, begin to, start to [CQ-Osage]; hi (hi) - arrive, reach there [Kaw]

hi kʰi-de (hkʰide) - send, cause to arrive there hi a-kʰi-de (hakʰide) - I, hi da-kʰi-de (hdakʰide) - you

            cf. hi (hi) - arrive, reach there, have been; kʰi-de (kʰde) - to cause one

i-hi (ih) - arrive, reach the place

cf. i-hi-zhi (hii) - almost, not quite

ko-wa-hi-niⁿ (kwahinį) - that arrived sg/mv/an], dem], the one who has reached

                        cf. ko-wa-hi-de-tʰe (kwahdetʰ) - that sg/st/in, yon

to-hi-niⁿ (thinį) - that sg/mv/an object that arrived on this side

cf. to-hi-tʰoⁿ (thitʰǫ) - that sg/st/an object on this side of a place he has reached; to-hi-niⁿ-kʰe (thinįkʰ) - that sg/si/an nearby object on this side of a place


maⁿ (mą) - arrow, arrow shaft

maⁿ (mą) - arrow [MS]

maⁿ (mong) - arrow (flche) [GI]

maⁿ (mą) - arrow [FS]

ex: maⁿ kʰe (mą kʰe) - the arrow

ex: maⁿ a-di-taⁿ (m̨ dittą) - to aim at with a bow

ex: maⁿ de-de (mą dde) - shoot an arrow

ex: maⁿ o-zhi (m̨o) - quiver for arrows

Dhegiha: moⁿ (moⁿ) - arrow [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ (moⁿ) - an arrow [FL-Osage]; maⁿ (mą́ą), moⁿ (m̨) - arrow, staff used at peyote meetings [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ (maⁿ) - arrow [Kaw]

arrow feathers

maⁿ i-da-da (mą idda) - arrow feathers

cf. i-da-da (idda) - glue something to something; a-da (da) - glue on; glue feathers on an arrow

Dhegiha: moⁿ i-tha-tha-ge (moⁿⁿthathge) - arrow feathers [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ i-tha-tha (mⁿ-i-tha-tha) - arrow feather [FL-Osage]; maⁿ a-ya-ge (maⁿyage) - arrow feathers [Kaw]

arrow notch

maⁿ-te o-zhaⁿ-ka (m̨tte ǫkka) - arrow notch

arrow shaft

maⁿ (mą) - arrow, arrow shaft

maⁿ di-kde-ze (mą dkdeze) - groove in an arrow shaft

Dhegiha: moⁿ thu-ghte-ze (mⁿ-thu-gthe-e) - the grooves made in an arrow shaft [FL-Osage]; maⁿ yu-le-ze (mⁿ yulze) - groove in an arrow shaft [Kaw]


            maⁿ-hiⁿ si (m̨hį s) - arrowhead

cf. ma-hiⁿ (mhį) - knife

Dhegiha: moⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿhiⁿs) - arrowhead [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿ-hiⁿ-i) - flint arrow point [FL-Osage]; iⁿ moⁿ-hiⁿ si (ⁿ-moⁿ-hiⁿ-i) - stone arrowhead [FL-Osage]; moⁿ-ze moⁿ-hiⁿ si (mⁿ-e moⁿ-hiⁿ-i) - iron arrowhead [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ su (mⁿhiⁿ s) - arrowhead [Kaw]; iⁿ ma-hiⁿ su (ⁿ mⁿhiⁿ s) - flint arrowhead [Kaw]

maⁿ-hiⁿ si o-kde (m̨hį s okd) - arrowhead

cf. maⁿ-hiⁿ si (m̨hį s) - arrowhead; o-kde (okd) - put lengthwise, to stand

maⁿ-hiⁿ si pa-haⁿ-te (m̨hį s pphą[tte]) - tip of an arrowhead


            wa-paiⁿ kaⁿ (wappą kką) - vein, artery

cf. wa-paiⁿ (wappą) - blood; koⁿ (kkǫ), kaⁿ (kką) - root of a plant; sinew, string, line

Dhegiha: koⁿ (koⁿ) - blood vessel, veins [Omaha]; ʰkoⁿ (ʰkoⁿ) - a vein or blood vessel, roots of trees or plants [FL-Osage]; ʰkaⁿ (ʰk̨), ʰkoⁿ (ʰk̨) - vein, artery, blood vessel [CQ-Osage]; kaⁿ (kaⁿ) - vein, artery, root [Kaw] . kaⁿ wa-biⁿ (kⁿ wabⁿ) - vein or artery [Kaw]


            o-ki-te iⁿ-te (okktte įt) - to have rheumatism

cf. o-ki-te (okktte) - joint; iⁿ-te (įt), iⁿ-de (įd) - ache, hurt, pain


            koⁿ (kǫ), kaⁿ (ką) - as, since

taⁿ (tą) - because, as

Dhegiha: doⁿ (doⁿ) - because, when, did [FL-Osage]; taⁿ (tą) - if, provided that, when, since, because [CQ-Osage]

            a-kaⁿ (ką) - like, as, so

                        cf. e-kaⁿ (eką́), e-koⁿ (ekǫ́), (kǫ) - like, thus, like that, so

Dhegiha: she-goⁿ e-goⁿ (shgoⁿ goⁿ) - like that, to be somewhat like that [Omaha/Ponca]; e-goⁿ (egoⁿ) - kind, type, as, like, certainly, action [Omaha]; e-goⁿ (e-goⁿ) - like, verily, very [FL-Osage]; e-koⁿ (kǫ) - like, similar to, like that, likewise, similarly, somewhat, kind of, rather, slightly, a bit, right, correctly, correct, appropriate, appropriately, that is right, true, that's the way, thus, therefore, mean, signify, happen, be so [CQ-Osage]; e-go (go) - like, as, so [Kaw]

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - I, I too, me too, as for me

wi-e-hoⁿ (wehǫ) - me too [OM]

ex: aⁿ-ka-shi-ka wi-e-hoⁿ o-wa-kaⁿ-shi-ka, wa-jhi-ni (ąkką́ik wehǫ owkką́ik waǰni) - he (white man) don't like me and I don't like him either [MS]

wi-e e-miⁿ-kʰe-ti (we mįkʰtti) - I, as for me


            maⁿ-shi de (m̨i d) - go up, ascend

                        cf. maⁿ-shi (mą) - upper, upward, heaven; de (de) - go

cf. maⁿ-shi hi (m̨i h) - high, high up, incommunicative; maⁿ-shi o-ki (m̨i okk) - Christian, lit.,"talks on high"; maⁿ-shi o-ki o-ti (m̨i okk tti) - church, "house to talk above"; maⁿ-shi taⁿ-ka (mą tt̨ka) - mountain

Dhegiha: moⁿ-shi a-di (moⁿshadi) - tall, be very tall, extend from the ground far up into the air [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-shi a-ha (moⁿshiaha) - high [Omaha]; moⁿ-shi (moⁿ́-shi) - up above, the arch of heaven, zenith [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mą́i) - be upward or upright [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-shi (mⁿshi) - high up, as the sun in the sky [Kaw]; maⁿ-shi-ta (maⁿshta) - above, upper, e.g. upper teeth [Kaw]

ash tree

            ta-shna hi (ttan̨hi) - ash tree, Fraxinus

Dhegiha: ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnge) - ash tree [Omaha/Ponca]; ta-zhnoⁿ-ge (tazhnoⁿge) - ash tree [Omaha]


i-shte (te) - ashamed, be i-da-shte (idte) - I, i-da-shte (date) - you, oⁿ-doⁿ-shta-we (ǫd̨tawe) - we

Dhegiha: i-shte (shte) - ashamed, bashful, to be ashamed or bashful [Omaha/Ponca]; i-shtse (iic), i-shtse-wai (iicwai) - be ashamed, feel ashamed [CQ-Osage]; i-shtse wa-the (shtse wa-the) - shameful [FL-Osage]


            ni-xo-te (nixtte) - ashes

                        cf. xo-te (xtte), (xott) - gray

Dhegiha: ma-xu-de (maqde) - ashes, gunpowder [Omaha/Ponca]; moⁿ-xu-de (moⁿxde) - ashes, cinder, gun powder [Omaha]; ni-xo-dse (ni-x-dse) - ashes [FL-Osage]; ni-xo-tse (nixoce) - ashes [CQ-Osage]; ni-xo-je (nixje), niⁿ-xo-je (niⁿxje) - ashes, gunpowder [Kaw]


            i-ho-de (hode) - ask, consult about something i-da-ho-de (idhode) - I, i-da-ho-de (dahode) - you

Dhegiha: i-hoⁿ (ihǫ), i-ho-e (iihe) - ask permission from someone for something, ask or request someone to do something [CQ-Osage]; wa-hu-the (wahthe) - respect, honor, consult, to consult someone before acting, treat with respect [Omaha/Ponca]

i-moⁿ-xe (mǫγe) - ask someone a question i-moⁿ-xe (mǫγe) - I, i-zhoⁿ-xe (ǫγe) - you, i-moⁿ-xe (mǫγe) - he/she, i-ma-xa-we (maγwe) - we

cf. i-ki-ma-xe (kkimγe) - question oneself; i-ki-aⁿ-xe (kiąγe), i-ki-ma-xe (kkimγe) - question one's own relation

Dhegiha: i-moⁿ-xe (imoⁿxe) - ask [Omaha]; i-moⁿ-xe (-moⁿ-xe) - inquire [FL-Osage]

wa-naⁿ (wan̨) - charge a price, ask wa-bnaⁿ (wabn̨) - I, wa-taⁿ (watt̨) - you

Dhegiha: wa-na wa-xiⁿ-ha (wana waxiⁿha) - invoice order [Omaha]; wa-na the-the (wana thethe) - order [Omaha]

ki-de (kde) - charge, ask a price a-ki-de (akde) - I, da-ki-de (dakde) - you


zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline a-zhaⁿ (ą) - I, da-zhaⁿ (dą) - you

zhoⁿ (jon) - sleep (dormir) [GI]

ex: zhaⁿ i-de (̨ id) - sleep

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de (̨kkid) - lie down to sleep

ex: zhoⁿ i-he (̨ ih) - lying down, be

ex: a-wi-taⁿ-we a-zhaⁿ-ta miⁿ-kʰe (wittąwe ątta mįkʰe) - I will lie watching you

ex: e za-ni zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke ( zan ̨ įk) - they all reclining

ex: a-zhoⁿ (ą) - I sleep [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I want to lay down (I feel like lying down) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (ą tią́) - I'm going to bed (I feel like lying down) [OM]

ex: a-zhoⁿ ti-ke (ą tik) - go to sleep [OM]

ex: da-zhoⁿ ti-aⁿ (dą tią́) - sleepy (you feel like laying down) [MS]

ex: zhaⁿ i-de (̨ id) - sleep [MS]

ex: a-zhaⁿ iⁿ-ke (̨ įk) - go to sleep [MS]

ex: da-zhaⁿ i-te naⁿ[da?] hoⁿ-bde (daą́ itt ną[da?] hǫ́bde) - when you go to sleep, you dream [MS]

ex: aⁿ-zhoⁿ-ki-de aⁿ-ki-wi-taⁿ (ą̨kkid ąkiwittą́) - let's go to bed [MS]

ex: zhoⁿ-ki-de ta miⁿkʰe (̨kkid  tta mįkʰ) - I want to lay down (I am going to lie down to sleep) [MS]

ex: a-zhoⁿ (ǫ) - bed [MS, OM]

Dhegiha: zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to recline, to lie down, to sleep, to be asleep, 24-hour period, a sleep [Omaha/Ponca]; zhoⁿ (zhoⁿ) - to sleep [FL-Osage]; zhaⁿ (̨ą) - sleep, go to sleep, lie down to sleep, go to bed, sleep over, stay all night, nights rest, overnight stay [CQ-Osage]; zhaⁿ (zhaⁿ) - lie down, recline, sleep, day, a sleep [Kaw]


            ki-sto (kist) - assemble, gather oⁿ-ki-sto-we (ǫkstowe) - we

cf. ki-sto kniⁿ (kist knį) - council, to sit in; ki-sto kniⁿ ni-ka-shi-ka (kist kn̨ nkkaka) - Congress, U.S.; ki-sto taⁿ-ka (kist tt̨ka) - council, tribal; ki-sto ta (kist tt) - tipi [MS]

Dhegiha: ʰki-sto (ḳi-t), ʰki-stu (ḳi-t) - a council, an assemblage, a meeting, United States Congress, the Senate, a court, a season [FL-Osage]; ʰki-sto (ʰkiist) - council meeting, tribal council season meeting, conference [CQ-Osage]; ki-sto (kisto) - council [Kaw]


i-na-zhiⁿ (naį) - stand by, support or aid someone i-da-na-zhiⁿ (idną) - I, i-da-na-zhiⁿ (danį) - you

cf. na-zhiⁿ (ną) - stand

Dhegiha: i-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ (-gi-noⁿ-zhiⁿ) - to depend on someone [FL-Osage]; i-ki-na-zhi (kinaazhi) - depend on, count on, rely on, lit., stand with another [CQ-Osage]

o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone o-a-kaⁿ (akką) - I, o-da-kaⁿ (dakką) - you

ex: o-ki-kaⁿ (okkką) - help someone [OM]

ex: wi-ki-kaⁿ ta (wi-gi-kun-t) - I will help you [LH]

Dhegiha: o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help one's own relative [CQ-Osage]; o-ki-ʰkaⁿ (okʰką) - help another who is not a relative [CQ-Osage] . o-ʰkaⁿ (ʰką) - help, help someone with a task, assist, aid [CQ-Osage] . u-wa-koⁿ (wakoⁿ) - help, to help them [Omaha/Ponca]; o-wa-kaⁿ (wakaⁿ) - help, to help someone [Kaw] . u-wa-gi-koⁿ (wagikⁿ) - aid, help, to help them or us, to aid more than one person [Omaha/Ponca]

o-ki-kaⁿ (kkikk̨) - help each other o-a-ki-kaⁿ (okkikk̨) - I, o-da-ki-kaⁿ (odkkikk̨) - you


            ka-zha-te (katte) - straddle, (stand) astride aⁿ-zha-te (̨atte) - I, di-a-zha-te (diatte) - you

cf. a-ka-zha-te (katte) - pass over, stride over something

Dhegiha: ga-zha-ta (gazhta) - with legs far apart [Kaw]; ga-zha-je (gazhje) - stand with legs wide apart, to step over something [Kaw] . zha-ta (zhata) - forked, split, cloven [Omaha/Ponca]; zha-ʰta (zh-ṭa) - cloven, parted, as the foot of a deer, buffalo, or cow [FL-Osage]; zha-ʰta (ʰta) - divided, forked, notched, branded, split, cut, sliced [CQ-Osage]; zha-ta (zhta) - forked, notched [Kaw]


ta (tta) - to, at, toward, in that direction

ex: ti-kde ta bde (ttikd tta bd) - I'm going to my house [OM]

ex: kdi, toⁿ ta aⁿ-ka-de taⁿ-niⁿ-kʰe (kdi, ttǫ tta ąkde tt[a]ąnįkʰe) - come on, we are going to town [AG]

ex: a-kde ta ta miⁿ-kʰe (akd tta tta mįkʰ) - I'm going home [OM]

ex: toⁿ ta (ttǫ tta) - town, to town [AG]

ex: taⁿ ta bde (tt̨ tta bd) - I'm going to town [OM]

ex: ni-sni toⁿ ta (nsni ttǫ tt) - to Baxter Springs, Kansas [AG]

Dhegiha: ta (ta) - at, to, suffix of position, motion to a place [Omaha/Ponca]; ʰta (ṭa) - in that direction [FL-Osage]; ʰta (ʰta) - toward, in the direction of, from, inside, to the inside of, into [CQ-Osage]; ta (ta) - in, at, towards [Kaw]

ti (tti) - at, by, in; locative

cf. e-ti (ett), (tti) - there

ex: di-e toⁿ ti da hne (de ttǫ tti d hn) - You go to town! [MS]

ex: hi-bde ta, ti wi-ta ti da-tʰi koⁿ-bda zhi (hibd tta, tti wtta tti datʰ kkǫbd i) - when I'm gone, don't you come around my house [MS]

ex: toⁿ ti bde ta miⁿ-kʰe (ttǫ tti bd tta mįkʰ) - I go to town (I'm going to town) [MS]

ex: hoⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ toⁿ ti te ta ni-kʰe (hǫn̨ttą ttǫ tti tt tta nikʰ) - why you go to town? (why are you going to town?) [MS]

Dhegiha: dsi (dsi) - there, designating place [FL-Osage]; tsi (ci) - to, to something upright or vertical, in, at [CQ-Osage]


wa-koⁿ-da (wkkǫda) - attack pl/an beings a-wa-koⁿ-bda (awkkǫbd) - I, wa-da-koⁿ-ta (wadkkǫtt) - you

Dhegiha: wa-ʰkoⁿ-tha (wa-ḳⁿ-tha) - to pounce upon, to attack with force and quickness, a riot, a raid [FL-Osage]; wa-kaⁿ-ya (wakⁿya) - rush on them, attack them [Kaw]

wa-koⁿ-da-ya (wkkǫdya) - attack pl/an beings, (witnessed)

cf: ya (-ya) - past witnessed evidential

            wa-na-se (wnase) - attack

cf: a-na-se (nase) - intercept, head off

Dhegiha: wa-na-se (wnase) - to surround them, surrounding of a herd [Omaha/Ponca]; wa-noⁿ-se (wa-nⁿ-e) - points of attack [FL-Osage]; wa-naⁿ-se (wanⁿse) - head off, surround a herd, surround them [Kaw]

            wa-te wa-baⁿ (watt wab̨) - to give the attack signal wa-paⁿ (wapp̨) - I, wa-shpaⁿ (wap̨) - you

cf. baⁿ (bą) - call, to halloo; wa-paⁿ (wapp̨ ) - I call (to them)

Dhegiha: wa-paⁿ (wap̨) - call, holler for folks, invite people [CQ-Osage]; wa-baⁿ (wabⁿ) - to call them (not by their request) [Kaw]

a-ki-da (kkida) - attack in return; return blow for blow a-ki-bda (akkbda) - I, a-da-ki-ta (dakktta) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-oⁿ-da-we (ǫkkkiǫdawe) - we

            ex: a-wi-ki-bda ta miⁿ-kʰe (wikkibda tt mįkʰ) - I will attack you in return


e-ti o-i-he (tti ih) - follow, go with, attend

                        cf. e-ti (ett), (tti) - there

a-ki-hi-te (kkihtte) - pay attention, attend, give heed, to insist on a-ki-hi-te (akkihtte) - I, a-da-ki-hi-te (dakkihtte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-hi-ta-we (ǫkkkihttawe) - we

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

cf. di-hi-te (dihtte) - meddle with things bdi-hi-te (bdhitte) - I, ti-hi-te (tthitte) - you


a-ki-hi-te (kkihtte) - pay attention, attend, give heed, to insist on a-ki-hi-te (akkihtte) - I, a-da-ki-hi-te (dakkihtte) - you, oⁿ-ka-ki-hi-ta-we (ǫkkkihttawe) - we

ex: a-ki-hi-te kniⁿ di-ni-ke (kkihitte kn̨ dinke) - you have no one to attend to you regularly

cf. di-hi-te (dihtte) - meddle with things bdi-hi-te (bdhitte) - I, ti-hi-te (tthitte) - you


wa-ki-ya (wkkiy) - lawyer

Dhegiha: wa-ʰki-e (w-ḳi-e) - lawyer [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰki-e (wʰkie) - lawyer, attorney, lit., taking up for a person [CQ-Osage]


zhoⁿ i-di-xo-te taⁿ-ka (̨ iddixʔotte tt̨ka) - drill, auger

zhoⁿ i-di-xo-te zhi-ka (̨ iddixʔotte ka) - gimlet

cf. zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - wood, tree; o-di-xo-te  (odxʔotte) - bore a hole; o-xo-te (oxʔtte) - hole, natural opening

Dhegiha: u-thi-u-de (uthude) - bore, pierce, to break through, to bore through [Omaha/Ponca]; u-thi-ʰku-dse (u-th-ḳu-dse) - to drill (a hole), to bore, as a hole [FL-Osage]; o-yu-ko-je (oykoje) - break a hole through a solid, to bore a hole with a brace and bit [Kaw]


i-ti-mi (ittmi) - aunt, man's. father's sister, older or younger wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my, di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your

Dhegiha: i-ti-mi (itmi) - aunt [Omaha]; i-ʰtsi-mi (i-ṭs-mi) - aunt, on father's side, his or her father's sister [FL-Osage]; i-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - his/her father's sister, his/her paternal aunt, more precise than English, his aunt or her aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-tsi-mi (icmi) - his or her aunt, fathers sister [Kaw]

wi-ti-mi (wittmi) - my aunt, my father's sister [MS, MR, AG]

ex: wi-ti-mi i-wi-ki-de aⁿ-da-kni (wittmi wkide ą́dakn) - my aunt, I'm glad to see you [FR]

Dhegiha: wi-ti-mi (witmi) - my aunt (Omaha); wi-ʰtsi-mi (wiʰcmi) - my father's, older or younger sister, my paternal aunt, used when speaker is male or female [CQ-Osage]; wi-tsi-mi (wicmi) - my aunt, my fathers sister [Kaw]

di-ti-mi (dittmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister

Dhegiha: thi-ʰtsi-mi (iʰcmi) - your father's sister, younger or older, your paternal aunt [CQ-Osage]; yi-tsi-mi (yicmi) - your aunt, your fathers sister [Kaw]

i-ti-mi-de (ittmide) - aunt, to have as an i-ti-mi-a-de (ittmiade) - I, i-ti-mi-da-de (ittmidade) - you

            Dhegiha: i-tsi-mi-ye (icmiye) - to have as an aunt, to call someone i-tsi-mi (icmi) [Kaw]

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older; older aunt on mother's side; mother's older sister

iⁿ-da nyoⁿ-hoⁿ (įdany̨hǫ) - aunt, older [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother [MS, MR, OM]; naⁿ-haⁿ (n̨hą), naⁿ-hoⁿ (nąhǫ), naⁿ-haⁿ (nąh̨) - old, grown up, mature

cf. i-da-te naⁿ-haⁿ (idtte nąh̨) - father's older brother, man's; ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ (nkka n̨hą) - old man, grown man; wa-x'o naⁿ-haⁿ (waxʔ  n̨hą) - old lady [MS]

iⁿ-da zhiⁿ-ka (įdįka) - aunt, youngest; younger aunt on mother's side; mother's younger sister

iⁿ-da zhi-ka (įdika) - aunt, youngest [OM]

cf. iⁿ-da (įd) - my mother [MS, MR, OM]; zhi-ka (ik), (ka), zhi-ga (ig), zhiⁿ-ka (įk), (̨ka) - small, little, young

Dhegiha: i-naⁿ zhiⁿ (iiną́į) - my mother's younger sister, more precise than English, my aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ zhiⁿ (iih̜į) - his, her mother's younger sister, more precise than English, his, her maternal aunt [CQ-Osage]; i-hoⁿ zhiⁿ-a (i-hoⁿ́-zhiⁿ-a) - little mother, a mother's sister or niece [FL-Osage]


            wa-taⁿ-ka (wattą́ka) - special, authority, someone with authority [MS]

ex: wa-zho-kte miⁿ-xti wa-taⁿ-ka a-niⁿ (waokte m̨xti wattą́ka an̨) - so they dance, one leader, special leader [MS]

Dhegiha: wa-ʰtoⁿ-ga (wa-ṭⁿ-ga) - a master, a high-rank official, one of high rank, a great person, principal [FL-Osage]; wa-ʰtaⁿ-ka (waʰt̨ka), wa-ʰtoⁿ-ka (waʰt̨ka) - authoritative, authority, someone with authority [CQ-Osage]; wa-taⁿ-ga (watⁿga) - principal chief, a chief [Kaw]

wa-pi-na (wapna) - one who tells about old ways; kahike stete; nanka tu, kani jika only ones now [JOD]

wa-pi-na (wappna) - chief of a gens (clan)

                        cf. wa-pi-na o-ti (wappna tti) - council house of a gens


ka-sni-sni (kasnsni) - autumn, "blows cold on and off"

cf. ka (ka) - by striking, wind, water; sni (sni) - cold, to be cold

Dhegiha: u-ga-sni (ugni) - breezy, ventilate [Omaha]

wa-sa zhoⁿ aⁿ-he (was ̨ ąh) - month in the Quapaw lunar calendar, early Winter or late Autumn

cf. wa-sa (was) - bear, black; zhaⁿ (ą), zhoⁿ (ǫ) - lie, recline


di-xi (dix) - awaken, arouse bdi-xi (bdxi) - I, ti-xi (ttxi) - you

Dhegiha: thi-xi (thxi) - arouse from sleep [Omaha]; thi-xi [thi-x) - to arouse one from sleep, to awaken [FL-Osage]; thi-xi (ix) - wake [CQ-Osage]; yu-xi (yux) - wake or arouse by pulling, pinching, or shaking [Kaw]

di-xi-xi (dixxi) - awaken, arouse by shaking bdi-xi-xi (bdxixi) - I, ti-xi-xi (ttxixi) - you


            wa-hi-ka (wahkka) - awl, made of metal

cf. wa-hi-ka zhi-ka (wahkka ka) - needle; wa-hi (wah) - bone

Dhegiha: wa-ku (waku) - awl [Omaha]; wa-hiu-ʰke (wa-hi-ḳe) - a bone awl [FL-Osage]; wa-hu-ʰka (wahʰka) - fork [CQ-Osage]; wa-hu-ka (wahka) - awl of any sort [Kaw]


iⁿ-spe (̨spe), (įsp) - axe

iⁿ-spe (inn-speh) - axe (hache) [GI]

cf. iⁿ-spe zhi-ka (̨spe ka) - hatchet

Dhegiha: moⁿ-ze pe (moⁿe pe) - ax [Omaha]; moⁿ-hiⁿ spe (moⁿ́-hiⁿ-pe) - ax [FL-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mą́ąhįspe) - axe [CQ-Osage]; maⁿ-hiⁿ spe (mⁿhiⁿspe) - axe [Kaw]


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