(I) Reminiscences. No.1. By Mrs. Mary Stafford
Kwapa Texts recorded by J. Owen Dorsey in January, 1894
on the Quapaw reservation, Indian Territory

 

 

1) & 2)

At that time, back when I was little, they wore, red paint, German silver breastpins placed in a row, leggings, and ball and cone earrings.

                                               

aⁿ-zhiⁿ-ka-ti e-tʰaⁿ-tʰaⁿ wa-se

ąįktti etʰ̨tʰą was

I small, I young/at, by, in/from that time, at that time/red ochre, paint, pigment, clay used for paint

 

i-niⁿ-ha i-ka-she-knaⁿ o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ

inįh kaekn̨ okkbatt̨ttą

too/button = breastpin of German silver/one after another, several in a row or series

 

hi-ni-ke i-niⁿ-ha ko-i-shoⁿ a-ni-he naⁿ

hinke inįh kį nihe n̨

leggings/too/so or of that sort/1st person singular moving, I moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

2)

oⁿ-i-taⁿ sto-ta i-niⁿ-ha oⁿ-i-taⁿ shoⁿ-shoⁿ i-niⁿ-ha

̨ittą stta inįh ̨ittą ̨ǫ inįh

earring/long (cone shaped)/too/earring/round, spherical/too

 

oⁿ-i pa naⁿ

̨i pp ną

they wear, use, do, be/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

3)

The men and the unmarried boys wore headbands with black feathers set upright in them.

 

ni-ka iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-na ke

nkka įtʰ̨na k

man/bachelor, unmarried boy/the plural standing or scattered

 

wa-pe-da-i naⁿ, wa-kde sa i-niⁿ-ha

wappda-i n̨, wkde s inįh

they wear around their head/habitual, regularly; past sign, when/feather on the head/black/too

 

a-kde pa naⁿ

kde ppa n̨

to put, set a standing object upright upon or within something which supports it/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

4)

There, back then, they put on sliver armbands and crescent bracelets in rows, one after another.

 

e-ti maⁿ-ze-ska a-kaⁿ-ta i-niⁿ-ha wa-di-ski-ta maⁿ-ze shto-zha o-ki-ba-taⁿ-taⁿ

ett mązska kątta inįh wdiskitt mąz ta okkbatt̨ttą

there, then/iron, metal/white = silver/armlets, armbands/too/bracelets/iron, metal/crescent, bent, curve/one after another, several in a row or series

 

e-ti-zhi pa naⁿ

etti ppa ną

there, then/put objects = put them on/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

5)

The grown women wore short dresses.

 

wa-xo naⁿ-haⁿ ke wa-tʰe shte-ka

waxʔ nąh̨ ke watʰ tek

woman/old, grown up, mature, raised/the plural standing or scattered/skirt, long skirt, dress/short

 

i-niⁿ pa naⁿ

in̨ ppa n̨

to put on clothing/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

6)

There (back then), the grown men wore only a breechcloth.

 

e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi

tti nkka nąh̨ ke ittkną n̨hi

there, then/man/old, grown up, mature, raised/the plural standing or scattered/breechcloth, diaper/only/very, intensifier

 

i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ

ittkną pp ną

wore breechcloth/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

7)

There, back then, the grown men wore their hair cut short.

 

e-ti ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke a-di-ski

tti nkka nąh̨ ke adisk

there, then/man/old, grown up, mature, raised/the plural standing or scattered/cut off all the hair, shave

 

naⁿ-hi pa naⁿ

n̨hi pp ną

only/very, intensifier/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

8)

That is how they were, in the olden times, that is how they dressed.

 

ko-i-shoⁿ pa naⁿ,

kiǫ pp ną,

so or of that sort/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

ti-aⁿ-ti we-da-niⁿ pa naⁿ

ttįtti wdanį pp ną

in the olden times, old time/dressed, clothing/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

9)

The grown men wore only a breechcloth, they did not wear shirts, they were bare chested.

 

i-ti-knaⁿ naⁿ-hi i-ti-knaⁿ pa naⁿ ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke,

ittkną n̨hi ittkną pp ną

breechcloth, diaper/only/very, intensifier/wore breechcloth/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

ni-ka naⁿ-haⁿ ke,

nkka nąh̨ ke,

man/old, grown up, mature, raised/the plural standing or scattered

 

do-ka-ni hi pa naⁿ

dokkni hi pp ną

naked to the waist/very, intensifier/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

10)

The old women of my size, like me, they too wore clothing.

 

wa-xo zhi-ka wi-e e-aⁿ-na-ska ke e-hoⁿ

waxʔ žik wie ęnask ke eh̨

woman/small = old woman/I, me/of my size/the plural standing or scattered/too, it, he, she too

 

we-niⁿ-tʰaⁿ pa naⁿ

wnįtʰą pp ną

put on, wear clothing/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

11)

The old women wore red broadcloth when they danced.

 

wa-xo zhi-ka wa-hiⁿ zhi-te i-niⁿ

waxʔ žik ke wah̨ tte nį

woman/small = old woman/the plural standing or scattered/cloth/red = broadcloth/to put on clothing

 

aⁿ-tʰaⁿ o-zha pa naⁿ

̨tʰą ža pp ną

when/to dance/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

12)

There was a large crowd.

 

xdi-we a-ta-pa pa naⁿ

xdwe ttappa pp ną

a crowd/great, exceeding, often, always/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

13)

When they danced, they danced in broad daylight.

 

o-zha-wi taⁿ haⁿ-pa ska-de hi

žaw tą h̨pa skde h

they dance/when, since, after/day/white/cause/very, intensifier = full daylight, broad daylight

 

o-zha pa naⁿ

ža pp ną

to dance/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

14)

They stopped dancing when the unmarried boys blew a flute.

 

o-zha a-di-shtaⁿ ki-baⁿ o-bi-xoⁿ pa naⁿ iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-naⁿ ke

a ditą kbą obγǫ pp ną

to dance/stop for the day, cease an activity/flute/blow into/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

iⁿ-tʰoⁿ-naⁿ ke

įtʰ̨ną ke

bachelor, unmarried boy/the plural standing or scattered

 

15)

The elders, the old men and women, the grown women, they were there.

 

sha-ke hi e-ti pa naⁿ,

ʔke hi ett ppa ną,

old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier/there, then/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

wa-xo e naⁿ-haⁿ sha-ke hi

waxʔ nąh̨ ʔke hi

woman/aforementioned, that, he, she, it/old, grown up, mature, raised/old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier

 

e-ti pa naⁿ

ett ppa ną

there, then/3rd person plural, they moving/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

16)

My father, he too was a very old man when he came here.

 

iⁿ-ta-te wi-ta kʰe de-do

įtttte wtta kʰe ddo

my father/my, mine/the singular lying/here, this place, right here

 

tʰi tʰaⁿ tʰe e-hoⁿ

tʰ tʰą tʰ eh̨

arrive, to have come here/3rd person singular standing standing/past, completive aspect/too, it, he, she too

 

sha-ke hi tʰaⁿ tʰe

ʔke hi tʰą tʰe

old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier/3rd person singular standing standing/past, completive aspect

 

17)

My mother was very old.

 

iⁿ-da wi-ta kʰe

įd wtta kʰe

my mother/my, mine/the singular lying

 

sha-ke hi tʰaⁿ tʰe

ʔke hi tʰą tʰe

old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier/3rd person singular standing standing/past, completive aspect

 

18)

Then, at that time, those who were very old when they came here died.

 

ko-i-shoⁿ-taⁿ e-ti-tʰaⁿ-tʰaⁿ

kįttą etttʰątʰą

then, thus, accordingly, in that way, therefore/from that time, at that time

 

sha-ke hi ke de-do

ʔke hi ke ddo

old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier/the plural standing or scattered/here, this place, right here

 

tʰi taⁿ ta-we

tʰ tą tʔwe

arrive, to have come here/when, since, after/they die

 

19)

There were others that came along after the elders (had died).

 

tʰi taⁿ e-zhi ke

tʰ tą ži ke

arrive, to have come here/when, since, after/another, different, other/the plural standing or scattered

 

sha-ke e-ti ke

ʔke ett ke

old, elderly, aged/there, then/the plural standing or scattered

 

20)

They have given birth since they came here (after the elders died, those that came here had babies, Quapaw life continued).

 

de-do tʰi tʰaⁿ tʰaⁿ i-ta-da-we

ddo tʰ tʰą tʰ̨ ttadwe

here, this place, right here/arrive, to have come here/from that time, at that time/they gave birth to a child

 

21)

There were only Indians, many came here then, although now there are none.

 

ni-ka-shi-ka zho-hi-xti ke e-naⁿ

nkkaka žohxti ke en̨

person, people/much, many/very, real, fully/the plural standing or scattered/only that, him, her, it

 

ni-tʰe de-do tʰi taⁿ ni-ka-we

nitʰ ddo tʰ tą nikwe

although, though; heretofore/here, this place, right here/arrive, to have come here/when, since, after/they are lacking, they have none

 

22)

There were many on a hunting expedition, when they arrived there at the Caddo land, they brought me along there too.

 

ka-ki zho-hi ke-ti

kak hi ktti

there, in that place, yonder, in that direction/much, many/the plural standing or scattered/at, by, in

 

ka-xnaⁿ hi taⁿ

kaxn̨ h tą

hunting as a tribe, migrate, go on hunting expedition/arrive, reach there, have been/when, since, after

 

so-de-ti hi-ti wi-e-hoⁿ

sde-tti h-tti wieh̨

Caddo/at, by, in = at the Caddo land/arrive, reach there, have been/at, by, in/I too, me too

 

aⁿ-niⁿ-hi-we e-ta

̨nį-hiw ett

they take me there/aforementioned, that, he, she, it/to, at, toward, in that direction = there

 

23)

There were very many Caddo too when we arrived, we took part regularly in their dances.

 

so-de e-hoⁿ zho-hi a-ta-ha ke

sde eh̨ žhi attah k

Caddo/too, it, he, she too/much, many/too, exceedingly, much/the plural standing or scattered

 

taⁿ aⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ o-zha

tą ąkhi tą ža

when, since, after/we arrive, we reach there, we have been/when, since, after/to dance

 

aⁿ-ko-i-he naⁿ-we

ąkihe-ną-w

we follow, we go with, we attend, we to take part, we join in/habitual, regularly; past sign, when/pluralizer = we joined in regularly

 

24)

Many women danced often.

wa-xo zho-hi o-zha naⁿ-we

waxʔ žoh ža-ną-w

woman/much, many/to dance/habitual, regularly; past sign, when/they, pluralizer = they danced regularly

 

25)

Well, when we arrived at the Caddo land on a hunting expedition, it was cold, it was winter, that is when the stars fell.

 

ha-o, so-de-ta ka-xnaⁿ

hao, sdetta kaxn̨

/Caddo/to, at, toward, in that direction/hunting as a tribe, migrate, go on hunting expedition

 

* hao . yes, well, ho, thank you, how are you, agreed, sign of approval as the English Hear! Hear!, interjection of approval, marks a change of idea as the beginning of a new paragraph in writing, used in calling to a distant person, oral period, masculine imperative

 

sni-wa-te taⁿ aⁿ-ka-hi taⁿ

sniwtte t̨ ąkhi t̨

cold, cold weather, winter, North/when, since, after/we arrive, we reach there, we have been/when, since, after

 

mi-ka-xe o-wa-ze naⁿ

mikkxʔe owze ną

star/to fall in great numbers as stars/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

* mikkxʔe owze ną . November 13th, 1833 the Leonid meteor shower

 

26)

I wonder if youall know (what Im talking about, in regards to the meteor shower).

 

i-shpa-haⁿ-we a e-te-te

pahąw a tte tt

you know/pluralizer = youall know/interrogative, question/perhaps, maybe, expresses uncertainty = I wonder if

 

* JODs notes she was questioning me, its obvious that he did know as he further notes then, 1833, about the size of a girl here who may be 14 referring to Mary Stafford and owze, to fall in great numbers as stars (in 1833)

 

27)

Well, they plowed the ground early in the Spring, at the Caddo land.

 

hau, pe-ta-ti o-taⁿ-ka so-de-ti wa-we

hau, pttatti otʰąka sdetti wwe

/Spring/at, by, in/as soon as = early in the spring/Caddo/at, by, in/they till, they plow

 

28)

There, back then, there was a very old man, his name was ma-xe-ka, he was a chief.

 

e-ti sha-ke hi e-ti niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ,

tti šʔke h ett nįkʰe n̨,

there, then/old, elderly, aged/very, intensifier/there/3rd person singular sitting/habitual, regularly; past sign, when

 

ma-xe-ka a-niⁿ zha-zhe, ka-hi-ke

mxeka an̨ žže, kahke

mxeka/to have/name/chief

 

* There was a xka tʰą . Dry Man, that signed treaties in the time frame referenced, but there is a name that is closer to the one that is recorded here, m̨ axka . (Buffalo Bull) Stuck Full of Arrows . arrow + on, upon + rough, prickly, thorny, pronged, branching

 

29)

There, back then, when it was summer, they brought barrels filled with flour and set them in a row, they also brought cattle, they would divide the flour and the cattle among themselves.

 

e-ti pe-tʰe-ti pe-zhe-xta zhaⁿ-a-be-tʰaⁿ o-zhi o-ki-kde-kde

ett petʰtti ppexta ̨-abetʰ̨ ož okikdkde

there, then/summer/when/wheat, flour/wood/wrapped around = barrel/to fill/set up in a row, one after another

 

a-niⁿ tʰi taⁿ te-ska i-niⁿ-ha

an̨ tʰi tą ttska inįh

to have brought here, arrived here with/when, since, after/buffalo/white = domestic cattle/too

 

i-ki-kda naⁿ-we

kkikd-ną-we

to divide, to distribute/habitual, regularly; past sign, when/pluralizer = they divided among themselves

 

30)

So that is what I know of how it was back then.

 

ko-i-shoⁿ i-pa-haⁿ e-ta-haⁿ

kišǫ ppahą tʰe ettah̨

so or of that sort/I know/past, completive aspect/over there, in that direction, thither, to or toward that place

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