Compiled By: Risë Supernaw Proctor












Quapaw lived by Atlantic Ocean with Osage, Kanza (Kaw), Ponka (Ponca), Omaha





Quapaws AKA: Ug’ akh pa; Downstream People; Those broken off the main stem; Lost Tribe; Pushed off the Hill people





Entire Dakota Souix Nation on Ohio and Wabash rivers.





DeSoto made contact with Quapaws then no more contact with whites until 1673




Chief Pa he kah led tribe to Ark.





Quapaws south of lower Ohio River exchange





Encountered by French 5 villages

(1) Tourima north of Ark river and near rivers mouth (2) Osotory north of Ark river and 16 miles to west (3) Tongigua on east bank of Miss River 11 miles north of Ark River (4) Kappa was on Miss west side 10 miles north of tongigua (5) at that time 5th village listed as Imaha or Southois




Small pox ravaged Quapaws – only 300 warriors left

3 villages: (1) Kappa and Tongigua merged and named New Kappa situated south of old Kappa location on west bank of Miss (2) Osotoy (3) Tourima    



Tourima joined New Kappa    



(1)Ouzovtovoir/Osotouy; (2)Tovarimon/Tourima & Tonquinga consoldated; (3) Ovgqappa/Kappa


1730 French officials encouraged a Great chief so as they only had one Chief to deal with. The French picked the Chief.      
1800 New Kappa separated into 2 smaller towns and Osotoy; moved to south bank of Ark river-Wah pah te sah principal Chief Tall Chief's ancester
1807   3 villages per Neiberg: (1) village south bank of Ark-lower one-9 miles above Ark Post (57 men, 71 women, 32 children Wah pah te sah Principal Chief; (2) 3 miles from above Chief Etah sah; 60men 73 women 33 children (3) 4 miles above #2 (78 men 110 women 41 children) Chief Wah-to-nee-kah    
1811 Earthquake at New Madrid      
1818   3 villages near Pine Bluff Arkansas    
1824 Ceded land- Started movement to Red River      
1826 Removal to Red River      
1830 Quapaws back to Arkansas      
1833   4 Principal Chiefs and 4 villages: (1) Lost Band-Tongigua-Tonquinqa-Tonginga under Chief Ka he kah tteda (2) Quapaw-Cappa-Ovappa-Kappa under Chief Hac kah ton (3) German-Toriman-Tovarimon-Tourima under Chief Sarassan (4) Osotowa-Otsochove-Osotone-Ouzovtovoir under chief Tonnonjinka


1834 Moved to Indian Territory-just west of MO line. 96,000 acres near Lost Creek; western border was Neosho; north to Cherokee neutral lands and east to Mo and south to Lovelys  


1837 Those Quapaws left on Red River joined Chief Bowles Band of Cherokees in Texas-then in 1840 those Quapaws established a village near Holdenville, Ok and lived there for next 20 years-meeting with the other groups for annuity payments & green corn  


1837 Ki He Cah Ted da or Lame Chief moves his group to the Neosho River in Kansas Territory. Osages are in four villages and the Quapaws are located at Huchach-pa Tanwha Town on Neosho River.
Tixier wrote: a fifth village on the Neosho, whose chief is named Ouachinka Lagri (Handsome Bird), forms a small independent republic. This politic chief, clever and enterprising, never mingles with the rest of the (Osage) Nation. He enjoys great authority over the tribe. The name Handsome Bird is poorly chosen for besides being ugly, this chief is lame; Lame Chief. Lame Chief and his group are located there until they move with the Osages to Osage Nation Indian Territory in around 1861.


1838 Discovered many had established homes on Seneca land. Some moved back to Ark.; Choctaw country; NE Texas;and joined with Creek Nation-called Creek Band of Quapaws on North Canadian river near Camp Holmes.  

Annuity rolls: 176 Quapaws signed by Chiefs Hack a ton; Ke he kah te dah (Lame Chief); Te she tah wah contah; and Wat te she (Joseph Lane)

1852 Epidemic of measles killed 40  


1854 Moved 5 miles upriver near Baxter springs on old military road east bank of Spring River.  


Those families that stayed around the Quapaw land and moved upriver to Baxter Springs were Crawfish, Greenback, Medicine, Hotel, Silk, Eddy, Vallieres, Lanes about 35 people total.
1861-1865 Canadian group still with Creeks; Chief War te she’s group fled to join kin in LeRoy, Ks; some stayed with Shawnees at Lawrence, KS; some at Osage Mission but most with Ottawas at Ottawa, Kansas. Kihekahtedda’s group still up on Neosho River in KS.
Most of the men served in Union Army. 2 Quapaw chiefs held prisoner at Ft. Gibson by confederates.




Neosho Agent Snow trying to move Quapaws back to reservation-once again starving-could lose reservation if not on it. 50 men in Army. Kansas group started back to IT led by Ki he cah teda the great Chief in 1861.
Signed oath of allegiance to US signed by War te She; Ca ha She Kah; Wa she hon ca (Tall Chief)





Quapaws on reservation desolate and starving. Ate yonkapins and roots of pond lily.







3 bands: (1) Canadian Band-Lewis Quapaw- 29 (2) George Lane band- 25 (3) Ka hic ka tedda band- 24

1872     Annuity payment-93 people listed-signed by Chiefs Kah hic kah te dah (Lame Chief); George Lane; Lewis Quapaw (Cah She Kah)
1877 TallChief –Great Chief- led 2/3rds of tribe representing 2 of the 3 villages to Osage country. 38 Quapaws stayed on reservation-the Government appointed acting chiefs: John Hotel and Charley Quapaw.      
1833 treaty said Quapaw’s title to reservation only good as long as they shall exist as a nation or continue to reside thereon. 80% living on Osage land with 49 living on Quapaw Reserve. Home band decided to expand by adopting individuals who would come to live on the reservation. They looked first in Ark. Quapaw/French ½ breed band: Abraham Dardenne, Rays, Imbeaus, Hunts. Also homeless Indian groups: Seneca tribe; Young, Crow, Miami tribe; Douthat, Gordon, Carden, Geboe; Pottawatomi: Sacto; E. Shawnee: Bluejacket, Fish; Peoria: Dagnett, Hedges, Hunt, Mohawk, Keno and NY Indians: James Newman, John Cartus, AW Abrams, Wades, Charles, McKenzie, Tousey, Gokey and Pelkey. When flood of adoptions ceased Quapaws had added 100 persons but majority of true Quapaws still in Osage country.
1889 Osage band of Quapaws going home      
1893-1896 Official final role. 215 Quapaws with 200 acres a piece and additional 40 acres to 236 Quapaws.      
1897 Lead discovered on Quapaw Reservation      
1894-1927 St. Mary's of the Quapaws- Catholic School      
Mary Maude (Grandma) Supernaw
Brief History of the Quapaw Tribe of Indians by Vern E Thompson
The Quapaws by W. David Baird
Tar Creek by Larry G. Johnson
The Quapaw Indians by W. David Baird
OGAXPA by Quapaw Tribe
Paths of our Children by George Sabo
A Journal of Travels into the Arkansas Territory 1819 by Thomas Nuttall
Tixier’s Travels on the Osage Prairies by Albert J. Salvan
Quapaw Annuity Rolls
Quapaw Census Rolls
Quapaw Heirship Rolls
Quapaw Competency Papers
Quapaw BIA Interviews 1920