teach, cause to know, cause to understand


i-ba-hoⁿ ki-de (bahǫ kde)

know, to know how - cause to do Speaker - Odestine McWatters


i-ba-haⁿ (bahą), i-ba-hoⁿ (bahǫ)

know how, recognize (RR-Quapaw)


ki-de (kde)

cause one's own, reflexive-possessive causative (RR-Quapaw)

You all that understand.  
e-che-zha,  i-za-ni  i-shpa-hoⁿ  ni-kʰa-she  (ečča, zan pahǫ nkhe) Speaker - Alice Crawfish Gilmore

goodness - all - you understand - you all sitting, doing that



Dhegiha Language Family Comparison

  • i-ba-haⁿ (bahą), i-ba-hoⁿ (bahǫ) - know how, recognize, i-pa-haⁿ (ppahą) - I know, i-shpa-haⁿ (pahą) - you know, oⁿ-noⁿ-ba-haⁿ-we (ǫnǫbahąwe) - we know (RR-Quapaw)
  • i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - know, to know a person or thing, i-pa-hoⁿ (ip͓ahaⁿ) - I know, i-shpa-hoⁿ (icpahaⁿ) - you know, aⁿ-tha-ba-hoⁿ i (aⁿaⁿbahaⁿi) - we know, aⁿ-thaⁿ-shpa-hoⁿ (aⁿaⁿcpahaⁿ) - you know me, i-wi-pa-hoⁿ (iwip͓ahaⁿ) - I know you (Omaha/Ponca)
  • i-ba-hoⁿ (-ba-hoⁿ) - to know, i-pa-hoⁿ (-pa-hoⁿ) - I know, i-shpa-hoⁿ (-shpa-hoⁿ) - you know, oⁿ-thoⁿ-ba-hoⁿ i (oⁿ-thoⁿ΄-ba-hoⁿ i) - we know (FL-Osage)
  • i-pa-hoⁿ (pahǫ) - know, understand, know as a person, be acquainted with, recognize, know someone as being a certain way or a certain type of person, guess, i-ʰpa-hoⁿ (ʰpahǫ) - I know, i-shpa-hoⁿ (pahǫ) - you know, aⁿ-naⁿ-pa-hoⁿ-pe (ąną́pahǫpe) - we know, wi-ʰpahoⁿ (wiʰpahǫ), i-wi-ʰpa-hoⁿ (iwʰpahǫ) - I know you, aⁿ-naⁿ-shpa-hoⁿ (ąną́pahǫ), aⁿ-thaⁿ-shpa-hoⁿ (ąą́pahǫ) - you know me, we-shpa-hoⁿ (wpahǫ) - you know them, we-shpa-hoⁿ-pe (wpahǫpe) - you all know them/him, i-thi-pa-hoⁿ (ipahǫ) - he knows you, we-pa-hoⁿ-pe (wpahǫpe) - they know us, aⁿ-naⁿ-pa-hoⁿ-pe (ąną́pahǫpe) - we know him/them, we-aⁿ-pa-hoⁿ-pe (weą́pahǫpe) - we know them (CQ-Osage)
  • i-ba-hoⁿ (bahoⁿ) - to know (Kanza)


  • ki-de (kde) - cause one's own, reflexive-possessive causative (RR-Quapaw)
  • gi-de (gi-the) - make to be (FL-Osage)
  • ʰki-the (ʰke) - make oneself, to do or be (CQ-Osage)
  • ki-the (ke) - make or have someone engage voluntarily in some act, let or allow someone to do something (CQ-Osage)
  • kʰi-ye (khye) - cause to do, let, allow to do, dative causative auxiliary (Kanza)