fall time, fall season

sni-wa-te  kdi  ta  (snwatte kdi tta)  

cold weather, winter - come back here, return - future, will be

Speaker - Maude Supernaw

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sni-wa-te  kdi  ta  tʰe  (snwatte kdi tta tʰe)

cold weather, winter - come back here, return - future, will be - .

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sni-wa-te (snwatte)

north, winter (RR-Quapaw)

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sni-wa-te (sniwtte)

power of winter, male (RR-Quapaw)

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kdi (kdi)

come back here, to have (RR-Quapaw)

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ta (tta)

future tense; potential mode clitic (RR-Quapaw)

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Dhegiha Language Family Comparison

         sni-wa-te (snwatte) - north, winter (RR-Quapaw)

         sni-wa-te (sniwtte) - power of winter, male (RR-Quapaw)

         ʰni-wa-tse (ʰní-wa-tse) - to be cold (FL-Osage)

         ʰni-wa-tse (ʰní-wa-ṭse) - cold weather, a cold day (FL-Osage)

         ni-wa-tse (ní-wa-tse) - it is cold (FL-Osage)

         ni-wa-ʰtse (níwaʰce) - be cold, an impersonal weather expression, not used for people (CQ-Osage)

         ʰni-wa-tse (ʰniwace) - cold, as the weather, winter months (Kanza)

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         sni-tʰe (sntʰe) - cold, to have a cold (RR-Quapaw)

         zni-tʰe (zntʰe) - to be cold, said of humans (Omaha/Ponca)

         ʰni-tse (hní-t̩se) - cold (FL-Osage)

         ni-ʰtse (níʰce) - be cold, feel cold, animate subject (CQ-Osage)

         ʰni-tse (ʰníce) - to be cold, as a person (Kanza)

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         kdi (kdi) - come back here, to have, a-kdi (akd) - I come back here, da-kdi (dakd) - you come back here, oⁿ-ka-kdi (ǫkkdi) - dual, we come back here (RR-Quapaw)

         ghti (gthi) - to come home, to return home, a-gthi (a-gth) - I come home, tha-gthi (tha-gth) - you come home, oⁿ-ga-gthi i (oⁿ-g-gthi i) - we come home (FL-Osage)

         a-li (al), li (l) - arrive back here, arrive home here, return here, come back, get back, motion accomplished, a-li (al) - I come back, tha-li (al) - you come back, aⁿ-ka-li (ąkli) - we come back (CQ-Osage)

         li (li) - to have come home, to have come back (Kanza)

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         ta (tta) - future tense; potential mode clitic (RR-Quapaw)

         ta (ta) - will, shall, potential or future marker (Omaha/Ponca)

         ʰta (t̩a) - shall, he shall, you shall (FL-Osage)

         ʰta (ʰta) - future tense marker, will, be going to, could, so that it could/might be, what if, were it the case that, would be (CQ-Osage)

         ta (ta) - future potential or intentive aspect (Kanza)

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         tʰe  (tʰe) - the sg/st/in, cl/in, the act (cf. 'past' meaning) (RR-Quapaw)

         the (e) - positional article for something moving entity, that, the aforesaid (CQ-Osage)

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         de (de) - this, now (RR-Quapaw)

         the (the) - these, he/she went, go, this (Omaha)

         the (the) - this (FL-Osage)

         the (e) - that, this, those, these, they (CQ-Osage)