Circa 1890
How the Rabbit killed the male Winter
An Omaha myth, told in Kwapa by Alphonsus Valliere
recorded by James Owen Dorsey 

 

Story in English
(further explanation)
Story in Quapaw using phonetic spelling
Story in Quapaw using Siouan IPA
Literal translation of Quapaw words

And so it happened that Rabbit went there (somewhere), it is said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti de naⁿ, i-ya.

h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke ett d ną, iy.

then, at length/rabbit/there/go/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

After some time he arrived at the abode of the Winter, it is said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi sni-wa-te niⁿ-kʰe-ti hi, i-ya.

h̨tʰąhi sniwtte nįkʰtti h, iy.

then, at length/winter, north, power of winter/the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/at, by, in/arrive, reach there, have been/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Well! Well! You have never come here before now!

ho-hoo! da-tʰi-zhi hi naⁿ ni-tʰe!

hoho! datʰi hi n̨ nitʰ!

interjection of wonder, surprise/you arrive, you have come here/not, negative, negation/very/habitual postclitic/conditional, perfect; although; heretofore

 

Sit over there!

(Sit by those things near you.)

she-ke-ti kniⁿ!

ektti kn̨!

those non-singular, standing, animate or inanimate objects/at, by, in/sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp

 

On what very important business are you traveling? it is said Winter said.

(Shows that there must have been some great trouble or important business which forced the Rabbit to wander from his home at such a time)

haⁿ-e hi da-maⁿ-tiⁿ ni-she? i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te.

h̨e hi dam̨ttį ni? iy iy sniwtte.

what is the matter, what happened/very/you walk/2sg continuative aux moving/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

Yes, my mothers brother and also my fathers sister.

(Addressing Winter and his wife.)

hoⁿ, wi-te-ke wi-ti-mi e-naⁿ-pa.

h̨, wtteke wittmi nąp.

yes/my uncle, mans mothers brother/my aunt, mans fathers sister/both, also, too

 

My grandmother almost beat the life out of me,

i-kaⁿ aⁿ-xdi hi tʰe,

ikk̨ ̨xdi hi tʰe,

my grandmother/strike me down, knock me senseless/very/past, completive aspect

 

so, I have been coming in a very bad mood, it is said Rabbit said.

e-koⁿ, wa-zhaⁿ-aⁿ-ni-ke-xti pʰi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

ek̨, wąąnkext pʰ anih, iy iy mat̨ke.

like, thus, like that, so/Im ill humored/very, real, fully/I come, I be coming here/1sg continuative aux moving/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

He (Rabbit) sat crying, it is said.

xa-ke kniⁿ niⁿ-kʰe naⁿ, i-ya.

γak knį nįkʰ ną, iy.

cry, weep/sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Rabbit jumped about continually, it is said.

ma-shtiⁿ-ke zha-ka i-naⁿ-naⁿ shoⁿ kniⁿ naⁿ, i-ya.

mat̨ke akk in̨ną ǫ kn̨ ną, i-ya.

rabbit/jump, make sudden leaps/and, still, yet/sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Rabbit could not sit still, it is said.

kaⁿ-zhe-hi-ti kniⁿ-zhi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

kkąhitt kn̨i iy mat̨ke.

very motionless/sit, be sitting, be in a place, camp/not, negative, negation/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/rabbit

 

Winter said to him, Will you sit still! it is said.

kaⁿ-zhi da-kniⁿ te, i-ke i-ya sni-wa-te.

kką dakn̨ tte, ik iy sniwtte.

still, motionless/you sit/future, potential or optative marker, shall/say (the preceding) to someone/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/winter, north, power of winter

 

No, mothers brother, it is always like this.

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-zho-ki-de.

hǫ, wttek, de ǫkid.

no/my uncle, mans mothers brother/this/always, ever, never

 

After some time, Winter Spoke of going hunting, it is said that he said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, sni-wa-te ta-bde de ta-we, i-yi i-ya.

h̨tʰąhi, sniwatt tbde d tta aw iy, iy.

then, at length/winter, north, power of winter/hunt large animals/go/future tense, potential mode clitic/evidential particle/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths

 

My Mothers brother, I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said.

wi-te-ke, de shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

wttek, d ǫbd tt mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke.

my uncle, mans mothers brother/this/I go toward you, I go to the place where you are or near you, I come toward you, I go to a person or someone/future tense/1sg continuative aux sitting/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

Why! you would surely die! it is said Winter said.

ho-hoo, di-te te de, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te.

hoho, ditʔ tte d, iy iy sniwtte.

interjection of wonder, surprise/you die/future, potential or optative marker, shall/really, indeed/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

No, mothers brother, how could I possibly die?

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ aⁿ-te ni-hoⁿ?

hǫ, wtteke, hąn̨ttą ątʔ nih̨?

no/my uncle, mans mothers brother/why or how/I die/improbability post clitic

 

No matter what, I will go with you, it is said Rabbit said.

koi-shoⁿ-e, shoⁿ-bde ta miⁿ-kʰe, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

kįe, ǫbd tta mįkʰ, iy iy mat̨ke.

no matter what/I go toward you, I go to the place where you are or near you, I come toward you, I go to a person or someone/future tense/1sg continuative aux sitting/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

We shall see. Do so! it is said that Winter said.

aⁿ-naⁿ-de ta-i. e-koⁿ te e-ki-oⁿ! sni-wa-te i-yi i-ya.

ąn̨de tta. kǫ tte kį! sniwtte iy iy.

we see/we shall, lets/so shall it be, it will be like that/do as someone has said or done/winter, north, power of winter/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths

 

The Winter went out of the lodge, and he said, whoo! whoo! they say, when,

sni-wa-te e niⁿ a-shi-ti naⁿ hw! hw! i-yi i-ya-wi taⁿ,

sniwtte e nį itti ną hw! hw! iy iywi tą,

winter, north, power of winter/that, aforementioned/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/outside, outdoors/past sign, when/onomonopia, sound of wind/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/plural sign/when

 

he made a blizzard, it is said, it was very cold, it is said.

i-ka-sho-te ka-xe, i-ya, sni-wa-te hi, i-ya.

katte kγe, iy, snwatte hi, iy.

blizzard/make, do, cause/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/cold, north, winter/very/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

He departed, accompanied by the Rabbit, it is said.

de naⁿ ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ zho-kde de, i-ya.

de ną mat̨ke nį okd de, iy.

go/when, time when/rabbit/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/with, be with someone/go/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

The Rabbit was very active, it is said.

ma-shtiⁿ-ke niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha, i-ya.

mat̨ke nį sis ttaha, iy.

rabbit/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/active/too, exceedingly, much/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

He ran far ahead and then back, again and again, it is said.

e-to-ha hi shi naⁿ-ke de naⁿ, i-ya,

ettha h shi nąk de ną, iy,

ahead, in front, in advance/very/again, and, also/run as an animal/go/habitual postclitic/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

xa-da shi kdi naⁿ, i-ya.

xda shi kdi ną, iy

back to starting point, back/again, and, also/to have come back here/habitual postclitic/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

He ran around and around the Winter, it is said.

sni-wa-te niⁿ naⁿ-ke shi o-di-shaⁿ naⁿ, i-ya.

sniwtte nį nąk shi odą ną, iy.

winter, north, power of winter/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/run as an animal/again, and, also/go around in a circle/habitual postclitic/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

That person is extremely active! thought Winter, it is said.

ni-ka-shi-ka niⁿ si-si a-ta-ha e-naⁿ, i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te.

nkkaka nį sis ttaha ną, nį̨ iy sniwtte.

person, people, a man/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/active/too, exceedingly, much/only that (!, in soliloquy)/think (what precedes)/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/winter, north, power of winter

 

After a while, he (Rabbit) flushed out a deer, it is said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, ta miⁿ naⁿ-zhi-we, i-ya.

h̨tʰąhi, tta mį nąwe, iy.

then, at length/deer/one, a/drive, flush out with the feet/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Oho! My mothers brother, there is a deer approaching over there! Shoot it! it is said Rabbit said.

ho-hoo! wi-te-ke, ta miⁿ she-do i-hi! ki-ta! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke

hoho! wtteke, tta mį do ih! kkitta! iy iy mat̨ke

interjection of wonder, surprise/my uncle, mans mothers brother/deer/one, a/yonder, there/arrive, reach the place/shoot (command)/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

No, I am not looking for that kind, it is said Winter said.

hoⁿ-zhi, e-koⁿ o-a-ta-zhi a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te

hǫ, ek̨ ottai anih, iy iy sniwtte

no/like, like that/I look for, hunt, search/not, negative, negation/1sg continuative aux moving/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

Just what can he be looking for? thought the rabbit, it is said.

ta-taⁿ naⁿ o-te niⁿ e tʰoⁿ? i-niⁿ-aⁿ i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

tttą ną ott nį e tʰ̨? nį̨ iy mat̨ke.

what, something/only/look for, hunt, search/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/question sign/in soliloquy/think (what precedes)/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/rabbit

 

After a while the Rabbit saw some Indians, it is said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi ma-shtiⁿ-ke ni-ka-shi-ka we-de naⁿ, i-ya.

h̨tʰąhi mat̨ke nkkaka wde ną, iy.

then, at length/rabbit/person, people, a man/he see, find them/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Oho! my mothers brother, over there are some Indians who are approaching, it is said Rabbit said.

ho-hoo! wi-te-ke, ni-ka-shi-ka de-pa she-do i-hi-we, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

hoho! wtteke, nkkaka dpa do ihwe, iy iy mat̨ke.

interjection of wonder, surprise/my uncle, mans mothers brother/person, people, a man/these moving, animate/yonder, there/they arrive, reach the place (they go to you)/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

Yes, I have been looking for just that kind, it is said Winter said.

hoⁿ, e-koⁿ naⁿ o-a-te a-ni-he, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te.

hǫ, ek̨ n̨ otte anih, iy iy sniwtte.

yes/like, like that/only that/I look for, hunt, search/1sg continuative aux moving/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

Then he (Winter) killed them, it is said.

koi-shoⁿ-taⁿ te-wa-de, i-ya.

kįttą tʔwad, iy.

thus, accordingly, in that way/he killed them/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

He (Winter) put the Indians across his back and packed them to his home, it is said.

ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa kda-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kde, i-ya.

nkkaka nikʰ kdkʰą wakʔ̨ kd, iy.

person, people, a man/3pl continuative aux sitting or reclining/crosswise, across/pack things/go home, to start homeward/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

When he (Winter) returned to his home carrying the Indians, she (Winters wife) cooked them, it is said.

ni-ka-shi-ka ni-kʰa wa-kiⁿ kʰi-naⁿ, o-wa-hoⁿ, i-ya.

nkkaka nikʰ wakʔ̨ kʰ-ną, wahǫ, iy.

person, people, a man/3pl continuative aux sitting or reclining/pack things/arrive back at ones own/when/boil or cook plural, animate, objects/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Hurry up and cook for your brothers son!

di-taⁿ-shka o-ti-ti o-ki-hoⁿ!

ditt̨ka ttitti kih̨!

your nephew, son of womans brother or mans sister/hurry in doing something, quickly/boil or cook food for someone

 

I think that he (Rabbit) is very hungry, it is said Winter said.

naⁿ-pe-hi-xti niⁿ a-zha-miⁿ, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te.

nąpphi-xti n̨ ąm̨, iy iy sniwtte.

to be hungry/very, real, fully/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/I think/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

When it (the Indians) was done, she filled the bowl for him (Rabbit), with the human flesh, it is said.

ti-te-de naⁿ, o-zhi o-ki-zhi tʰaⁿ, i-ya, ni-ka-shi-ka zho tʰe.

tttede-n̨, i kii tʰą, iy, nkkaka tʰe.

cook something/when, time when/bowl, dish/fill something for someone/the standing animate; 3sg continuative auxiliary, singular, standing, animate/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/person, people, a man/flesh, meat/the singular, standing, inanimate, collective, inanimate

 

The Rabbit said, I am not accustomed to eating that kind (of food), it is said.

wi-e e-koⁿ wa-bda-ta-zhi moⁿ, i-ye niⁿ-kʰe i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

we ek̨ w-bdati m̨, iy nįkʰ iy mat̨ke.

I, me/like, thus, like that, so/things, stuff, people, folks, they, them/I eat, not/I do, I engage in/to say/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/rabbit

 

He gave it (the bowl of food) back to them, it is said.

wa-ki-ki naⁿ, i-ya.

wakkʔi ną, iy.

give back, return to them/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

When all the food had been consumed, it is said that Winter spoke of going hunting again.

o-naⁿ-bde kda-sniⁿ naⁿ, shi-naⁿ ta-bde de ta-w, i-yi i-ya sni-wa-te.

nąbde kdasn̨ ną, ną tbde d tta we, iy iy sniwtte.

food/swallow ones own/past sign, when/again/hunt large animals/go/future/evidential particle/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/winter, north, power of winter

 

The Winter said, Rabbit, lets go, it is said.

aⁿ-ka-de te, ma-shtiⁿ-ke, i-ye niⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te.

ąkde tte, mat̨ke, iy nį iy sniwtte.

we, I and one other go/future, potential or optative marker, shall/to say/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/winter, north, power of winter

 

No, mothers brother, you go alone! it is said Rabbit said.

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-te-ke, di-e naⁿ iⁿ-te da! i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke

hǫ, wttek, de n̨ įtte d! iy iy mat̨ke

no/my uncle, mans mothers brother/you/only/?/go!/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

Winter made it very cold again and again departed, it is said.

sni-wa-te shi-naⁿ sni-wa-te hi ka-xe naⁿ, shi-naⁿ de, i-ya.

sniwtte ną sniwtte h kγe ną, ną d, iy.

winter, north, power of winter/again/cold, cold weather/very/make, do, cause/when/again/go/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

When he had gone, Rabbit questioned the wife of Winter, it is said:

hi-de tʰe-ti, ma-shtiⁿ-ke sni-wa-te ka-xnoⁿ niⁿ-kʰe i-ki-aⁿ-xe, i-ya:

hid tʰett, mat̨ke sniwtte kxnǫ nįkʰ kiąγ, iy:

to have gone somewhere/when/rabbit/winter, north, power of winter/wife/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/question ones own relation/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

My fathers sister, what does my mothers brother fear?

wi-ti-mi, wi-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe niⁿ e?

wttim, wittke tttą n̨ppe n̨ e?

my aunt, my fathers sister/my uncle, mans mothers brother/what, something/fear the sight of something/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/question sign

 

Your mothers brother fears nothing whatsoever, it is said the old woman said.

di-te-ke ta-taⁿ naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe.

dtteke tttą n̨ppe nik hi, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ.

your uncle, mans mothers brother/what, something/fear the sight of something/to have none, be lacking/very/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/old woman, little old lady/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate

 

No! fathers sister, even I have something to fear.

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-ti-mi, wi-e-hi-taⁿ naⁿ-pe aⁿ-taⁿ.

hǫ, wttim, wihitt̨ n̨ppe ątt̨.

no/my aunt, my fathers sister/I myself, even I/fear the sight of something/I possess, have

 

How could it be possible that my mothers brother fears nothing?

haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ wi-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke ni-hoⁿ?

hąn̨ttą wittke n̨ppe nik nih̨?

why or how/my uncle, mans mothers brother/fear the sight of something/to have none, be lacking/improbability post clitic

 

Your mothers brother fears nothing at all, it is said the old woman said.

di-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke hi, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe.

dtteke tttą n̨ppe nik hi, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ.

your uncle, mans mothers brother/fear the sight of something/to have none, be lacking/very/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/old woman, little old lady/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate

 

No, my fathers sister, even I am often scared.

hoⁿ-zhi, wi-ti-mi, wi-e-taⁿ aⁿ-na-xi-da-shtaⁿ i-naⁿ.

hǫ, wttim, wihitt̨ ąnγida-t̨ in̨.

no/my aunt, my fathers sister/I myself, even I/I am scared/habitual aspect suffix/sign of sudden effect, sentence final

 

How could it be possible that my mothers brother fears nothing?

haⁿ-niⁿ-taⁿ wi-te-ke naⁿ-pe ni-ke ni-hoⁿ?

hąn̨ttą wittke n̨ppe nik nih̨?

why or how/my uncle, mans mothers brother/fear the sight of something/to have none, be lacking/improbability post clitic

 

Yes! Your mothers brother fears the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said the old woman said.

hoⁿ! di-te-ke ta-ska pa-hi naⁿ-pe niⁿ, i-yi i-ya wa-xo-zhi-ka niⁿ-kʰe.

hǫ! dttke ttask ppah n̨ppe n̨, iy iy waxʔik nįkʰ.

yes/your uncle, mans mothers brother/bighorn sheep/head/fear the sight of something/the singular, moving, animate; 3sg continuative moving/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/old woman, little old lady/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate

 

Yes! I thought so, it is said Rabbit said.

hoⁿ! e-koⁿ zhamiⁿ, i-yi i-ya ma-shtiⁿ-ke.

hǫ! ek̨ ąm̨, iy iy mat̨ke.

yes/like that, so/I think/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths/rabbit

 

He sought a Rocky Mountain sheep and killed one, it is said.

ta-ska miⁿ i-de naⁿ te-de, i-ya.

ttask m̨ de n̨ tʔ-de, iy.

bighorn sheep/one, a/see, find/when, past sign/kill/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

He cut off the head, packed it on his back and went home, it is said.

pa-hi niⁿ-kʰe pa-xoⁿ taⁿ ki kde naⁿ, i-ya.

ppah nįkʰ pxǫ tą kʔį kd ną, iy.

head/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/cut apart, disjoint/when/carry, pack on the back/go home, to start homeward/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Winter had returned there, to his home, it is said.

sni-wa-te e-ti kʰi, i-ya.

sniwtte tti kʰ, iy.

winter, north, power of winter/there/arrive back at ones own/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

In what direction did Rabbit go?

ma-shtiⁿ-ke ha-ki-de-de de e?

mat̨ke hkidde d e?

rabbit/where, which direction/go/question sign

 

He just now went outside, the old woman said.

iⁿ-chʰoⁿ a-shi-ti de, i-ye tʰaⁿ wa-xo-zhi-ka tʰaⁿ.

̨čʰǫ h itti d, iy tʰą waxʔik tʰą.

now, right now/outside, outdoors/go/say/the standing animate; 3sg continuative auxiliary, singular, standing, animate/old woman, little old lady/the standing, animate

 

After a while, when it was dusk, Rabbit returned there, it is said.

hoⁿ-tʰaⁿ-hi, pa-ze he-be taⁿ, ma-shtiⁿ-ke e-ti ki, i-ya.

h̨tʰąh, ppze heb tą, mat̨ke ett ki, iy.

then, at length/evening/piece, part/when/rabbit/there/be returning to here/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

My mothers brother, that object by you is the head of a Bighorn sheep, it is said that he said.

wi-te-ke, she-niⁿ-kʰe ta-ska pa-hi miⁿ, i-yi- i-ya.

wttek, nįkʰ ttask ppah mį, iy iy.

my uncle, mans mothers brother/that sitting, visible, animate or inanimate/bighorn sheep/head/one, a/quotative embedded, it is said he said in myths

 

When he threw it (the head) at him (Winter), Winter laid there stone cold dead, it is said.

ki-oⁿ-de de-de naⁿ, te-xti hi zhaⁿ i-ya sni-wa-te.

kǫde dde n̨, tʔxti hi ̨ iy sniwtte.

throw something at someone suddenly/when/stone cold dead/very/lie, recline/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential/winter, north, power of winter

 

Only the woman remained, it is said.

wa-xo niⁿ-kʰe e-naⁿ-hi o-shte naⁿ, i-ya.

waxʔ nįkʰ nąh ot ną, iy.

woman/3sg continuative sitting; the singular, sitting, animate or inanimate/only that, him, her, it/very/past sign, when/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

Therefore, from that time on, it has not been very cold, it is said.

(Before that it was much colder that it is now. Now we have the female Winter)

e-toⁿ-ti-tʰaⁿ, sni-wa-te hi-zhi naⁿ, i-ya.

ttǫtttʰą, sniwtte h-i ną, iy.

therefore, from then on/cold, north, winter/very/not, negative, negation/habitual postclitic/it is said, they say, quotative, hearsay evidential

 

The end.

shoⁿ.

̨.

the end, enough

 

Download this story in .pdf